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The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 - 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

Published By :

SNS Telecom & IT

Published Date : Mar 2019

Category :

Telecommunications

No. of Pages : 871 Pages

Commonly referred to as V2X, vehicle-to-everything communications technology allows vehicles to directly communicate with each other, roadside infrastructure, and other road users to deliver an array of benefits in the form of road safety, traffic efficiency, smart mobility, environmental sustainability, and driver convenience. In addition, V2X is also helping pave the way for fully autonomous driving through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability which allows vehicles to detect potential hazards, traffic, and road conditions from longer distances and sooner than other in-vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar, and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging).

Although legacy V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) technologies are currently in operational use worldwide for ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) and relatively simple V2I applications, advanced V2X systems – capable of supporting V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2I and other forms of V2X communications – are beginning to gain broad commercial acceptance with two competing technologies vying for the attention of automakers and regulators:  the commercially mature IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) standard, and the relatively new 3GPP-defined C-V2X (Cellular V2X) technology which has a forward evolutionary path towards 5G.

With an initial focus on road safety and traffic efficiency applications, Toyota and GM (General Motors) have already equipped some of their vehicle models with IEEE 802.11p-based V2X technology in Japan and North America.  Among other commercial commitments, Volkswagen will begin deploying IEEE 802.11p on volume models in Europe starting from 2019, while Geely and Ford plan to integrate C-V2X in their new vehicles by 2021 and 2022 respectively. It is also worth nothing that a number of luxury automakers – including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen's subsidiary Audi, and Volvo Cars – already deliver certain V2X-type applications through wide-area cellular connectivity and supporting infrastructure such as appropriately equipped roadwork trailers.

Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022,  V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide.

The “V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the V2X ecosystem including market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, application scenarios, use cases, business models, key trends, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, V2X deployment case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents market size forecasts from 2019 till 2030. The forecasts cover four submarkets, two air interface technologies,  10 application categories and five regions.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics:

  • V2X ecosystem
  • Market drivers and barriers
  • V2V, V2I, V2P/V2D, V2N and other types of V2X communications
  • V2X architecture and key elements
  • V2X transmission modes, message sets and service capabilities
  • IEEE 802.11p, C-V2X and other enabling technologies for V2X communications
  • Complementary technologies including ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems), precision positioning, edge & cloud computing, network slicing, artificial intelligence, machine learning, Big Data and advanced analytics
  • Key trends including the adoption of V2X as an integral part of automakers' vehicle development roadmaps; commercial readiness of V2X systems capable of supporting both  IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X; launch of large scale, city-wide V2X deployments; availability of nationally and transnationally scalable V2X SCMS (Security Credential Management System) service offerings; emergence of motorcycle-specific V2X safety applications; use of V2V communications to support truck platooning systems; and delivery of certain V2X-type applications through  wide-area cellular connectivity
  • Review of more than 160 V2X applications – ranging from safety-related warnings and traffic light advisories to ""see-through"" visibility and fully autonomous driving
  • Business models for monetizing V2X applications
  • Examination of IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X engagements worldwide, including case studies of 22 live V2X deployments
  • Spectrum availability and allocation for V2X across the global, regional and national regulatory domains
  • Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives
  • Future roadmap and value chain
  • Profiles and strategies of over 330 leading ecosystem players including automotive OEMS and V2X technology & solution providers
  • Exclusive interview transcripts from eight companies across the V2X value chain: Cohda Wireless, Foresight Autonomous Holdings, Kapsch TrafficCom, Nokia, NXP Semiconductors, OnBoard Security, Qualcomm, and Savari
  • Strategic recommendations for automotive OEMS, V2X technology & solution providers, mobile operators, cellular industry specialists and road operators
  • Market analysis and forecasts from 2019 till 2030

Forecast Segmentation

Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

Submarkets

  • V2X Terminal Equipment
  • OBUs (On-Board Units)
  • RSUs (Roadside Units)
  • V2X Applications
  • V2X Backend Network Elements
  • V2X Security

Air Interface Technologies

  • C-V2X (Cellular V2X)
  • LTE-V2X
  • 5G NR (New Radio)-V2X
  • IEEE 802.11p
  • IEEE 802.11p-2010
  • IEEE 802.11bd/NGV (Next-Generation V2X)

Application Categories

  • Road Safety
  • Traffic Management & Optimization
  • Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
  • Transit & Public Transport
  • Commercial Vehicle Operations
  • Emergency Services & Public Safety
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Road Weather Management
  • Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
  • Value-Added Services

Regional Markets

  • North America
  • Asia Pacific
  • Europe
  • Middle East & Africa
  • Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered

The report provides answers to the following key questions:

  • How big is the V2X opportunity?
  • What trends, drivers and barriers are influencing its growth?
  • How is the ecosystem evolving by segment and region?
  • What will the market size be in 2022, and at what rate will it grow?
  • Which regions and countries will see the highest percentage of growth?
  • What is the status of V2X adoption worldwide, and what is the current installed base of V2X-equipped vehicles?
  • What are the key application scenarios and use cases of V2X?
  • How does V2X augment ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) to improve active safety, traffic efficiency and situational awareness?
  • Can V2X improve road safety for pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and other vulnerable road users?
  • What are the practical, quantifiable benefits of V2X – based on early commercial rollouts and large-scale pilot deployments?
  • What are the technical and performance characteristics of IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X?
  • Do VLC (Visible Light Communications)/Li-Fi and other short-range wireless technologies pose a threat to IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X?
  • Which V2X applications will 5G-V2X and IEEE 802.11bd systems support in the future?
  • How will V2X enable the safe and efficient operation of autonomous vehicles?
  • What opportunities exist for mobile operators and cellular industry specialists in the V2X ecosystem?
  • Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?
  • What strategies should automotive OEMs, V2X technology & solution providers, and other stakeholders adopt to remain competitive?

Key Findings

The report has the following key findings:

  • Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022, V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide.
  • While Toyota and other DSRC proponents are pushing ahead with their plans to roll out IEEE 802.11p in North America, Europe and Japan,  pre-commercial C-V2X deployments have recently gained considerable momentum, spearheaded by cellular industry giants such as Qualcomm and Huawei – with support from automakers including Ford, BMW, Daimler, Groupe PSA, SAIC, Geely, Volkswagen's luxury brand Audi, and JLR (Jaguar Land Rover).
  • Regional markets are also visibly divided with the Chinese Government backing C-V2X, Europe leaning towards IEEE 802.11p through its recently published delegated act on C-ITS (Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems), and heated debates ensuing in the United States as a result of the 5GAA's waiver request to allow C-V2X deployments in the 5.9 GHz band.
  • As a result, a number of automotive OEMs are beginning to adopt a flexible approach by choosing to deploy different technologies in different regions as they commit to V2X. For example, although GM has equipped its Cadillac CTS sedan vehicles with IEEE 802.11p in North America, the automaker is actively working with business partners to prepare for C-V2X deployment in China.
  • Besides becoming a standard safety feature on an increasing number of vehicles, V2X communications technology – through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability – will play a critical role in ensuring the safe and efficient operation of autonomous driving systems, particularly with the commercialization of next-generation V2X standards, specifically 5G-V2X and IEEE 802.11bd.
  • The globally harmonized 5.9 GHz band continues to remain the preferred spectrum for V2X communications technology, with the exception of Japan – where the national regulator has allocated a single 9 MHz channel in the frequency range 755.5 – 764.5 MHz for safety-related applications based on V2V and V2I communications.
  • Early discussions are ongoing for the potential use of new bands, most notably in the 3.4 – 3.8 GHz and 5.9 – 7.2 GHz frequency ranges, as well as millimeter wave spectrum for LOS (Line-of-Sight) and high data rate V2X applications. Recent field trials using 39 GHz spectrum in the United States have demonstrated that millimeter propagations for V2V communications can work well in the distance range of 100 meters, without advanced beamforming techniques.

Countires Covered

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua & Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Brunei
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China
  • Cocos Islands
  • Colombia
  • Comoros Islands
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Democratic Rep of Congo (ex-Zaire)
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • East Timor
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Faroe Islands
  • Federated States of Micronesia
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia (ex-Tahiti)
  • French West Indies
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guam
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea Republic
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kirghizstan
  • Kiribati
  • Korea
  • Kosovo
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macau
  • Macedonia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Caledonia
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • North Korea
  • Northern Marianas
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestine
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Réunion
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Rwanda
  • Samoa
  • Samoa (American)
  • Sao Tomé & Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • St Kitts & Nevis
  • St Lucia
  • St Vincent & The Grenadines
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks & Caicos Islands
  • UAE
  • Uganda
  • UK
  • Ukraine
  • Uruguay
  • US Virgin Islands
  • USA
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

List of Companies Mentioned

  • 01LightCom
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
  • 5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
  • 5G-Connected Mobility Consortium
  • 7Layers
  • A1 Telekom Austria Group
  • AASA
  • AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
  • Abu Dhabi Department of Transport
  • ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association)
  • ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
  • AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)
  • Airbiquity
  • Airgain
  • Alibaba Group
  • Allgon
  • Alphabet
  • Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics)
  • Altran
  • Amphenol Corporation
  • Amsterdam Group
  • Anritsu Corporation
  • Apple
  • Applied Information
  • Aptiv (Delphi Automotive)
  • ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
  • Aricent
  • ARM Holdings
  • Arteris IP
  • ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures)
  • Association of Global Automakers
  • ASTM International
  • Aston Martin Lagonda
  • ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
  • AT&T
  • ATA (American Trucking Associations)
  • ATEC ITS France
  • Athena Group
  • ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
  • Audi
  • Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
  • Autoliv
  • Automatic Labs
  • Autotalks
  • Aventi Intelligent Communication
  • BAIC Group
  • Baidu
  • Battelle
  • BCE (Bell Canada)
  • Beijing BDStar Navigation
  • BJEV
  • BlackBerry
  • BMW Group
  • BMW Motorrad
  • Boréal Bikes
  • Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings)
  • Broadcom
  • Bureau Veritas
  • BYD
  • C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium)
  • CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
  • CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles)
  • CalAmp
  • CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership)
  • Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology)
  • CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition
  • CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium)
  • CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
  • CDOT (Colorado Department of Transportation)
  • CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads)
  • CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
  • CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
  • CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
  • Certicom
  • CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology)
  • CETECOM
  • CEVA
  • Changan Automobile
  • Chemtronics
  • Chery
  • China Mobile
  • China Telecom
  • China Transinfo
  • China Unicom
  • Chunghwa Telecom
  • CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)
  • CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute)
  • Cisco Systems
  • C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance)
  • Clarion
  • CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers)
  • CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium)
  • CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)
  • CNH Industrial
  • Cohda Wireless
  • Commsignia
  • Confidex
  • Connected Signals
  • Continental
  • ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium
  • CSTI (Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Japan)
  • Cubic Corporation
  • Cubic Telecom
  • Cybercom Group
  • Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
  • DAF Trucks
  • Daimler
  • Daimler Trucks
  • Danlaw
  • Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group
  • DEKRA
  • Delphi Technologies
  • Denso Corporation
  • Derq
  • Desay SV Automotive
  • DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation)
  • DT (Deutsche Telekom)
  • DT&C
  • Ducati Motor Holding
  • DXC Technology
  • EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance)
  • Econolite
  • EFKON
  • Ericsson
  • ERTICO – ITS Europe
  • ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council)
  • ESCRYPT
  • eSSys
  • ETAS
  • ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
  • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
  • Eurofins Scientific
  • European Commission
  • Faraday Future
  • FAW Group
  • FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)
  • Ferrari
  • FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
  • FEV Group
  • Ficosa
  • Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks)
  • Flex
  • FLIR Systems
  • Fluidmesh Networks
  • Ford Motor Company
  • Foresight Autonomous Holdings
  • Forward Electronics
  • Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
  • Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
  • Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
  • Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology)
  • Fujitsu
  • GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group)
  • GCF (Global Certification Forum)
  • Geely Auto
  • Geely Holding
  • Gemalto
  • GENIVI Alliance
  • Genvict
  • GM (General Motors)
  • Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
  • Google
  • Gosuncn Technology Group
  • Great Wall Motor Company
  • Green Hills Software
  • Griiip
  • Groupe PSA
  • Groupe Renault
  • GSMA
  • HAAS Alert
  • Halla Group
  • Hancom MDS
  • Harada Industry
  • HARMAN International
  • Helix Technologies
  • HELLA
  • HERE Technologies
  • Hino Motors
  • Hirschmann Car Communication
  • HiSilicon
  • Hitachi
  • HKT
  • HNTB Corporation
  • Honda Motor Corporation
  • HORIBA MIRA
  • HSAE/Hangsheng Technology
  • Huali/iSmartWays Technology
  • Huawei
  • Hyundai Mobis
  • Hyundai Motor Company
  • Hyundai Motor Group
  • IAV
  • IBM Corporation
  • IDnomic
  • IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
  • IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore)
  • IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group
  • Infineon Technologies
  • INRIX
  • Intel Corporation
  • InterDigital
  • Intertek
  • Invengo
  • IPC (Increment P Corporation)
  • ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
  • ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
  • ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services)
  • Isuzu Motors
  • ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers)
  • Iteris
  • ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
  • iTRONICS
  • ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America)
  • ITS Asia-Pacific
  • ITS Australia
  • ITS Canada
  • ITS China
  • ITS Connect Promotion Consortium
  • ITS Info-Communications Forum
  • ITS Japan
  • ITS Korea
  • ITS Singapore
  • ITS Taiwan
  • ITS UK (United Kingdom)
  • ITT (IT Telecom)
  • ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
  • Iveco
  • JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
  • Jin Woo Industrial
  • JISC (Japanese Industrial Standards Committee)
  • JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)
  • JRC (Japan Radio Company)
  • JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan)
  • Juniper Networks
  • JVCKENWOOD Corporation
  • Kapsch TrafficCom
  • Karamba Security
  • KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards)
  • Kawasaki Heavy Industries
  • KDDI Corporation
  • Keysight Technologies
  • Kia Motors Corporation
  • KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal)
  • KPN
  • KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers)
  • KT Corporation
  • KTM
  • Kymeta Corporation
  • Kyocera Corporation
  • LACROIX City/LACROIX Neavia
  • Laird
  • Lear Corporation
  • Leidos
  • Lenovo
  • Leonardo
  • Lesswire
  • LG Electronics
  • LG Innotek
  • Linux Foundation
  • LITE-ON Technology Corporation
  • LMT (Latvijas Mobilais Telefons)
  • LoJack
  • Longsung Technology
  • Lucid Motors
  • Luxoft
  • Lyft
  • Magna International
  • Magneti Marelli
  • Mahindra & Mahindra
  • MAN
  • Mando Corporation
  • Marben
  • Marvell
  • Mazda Motor Corporation
  • McCain
  • McLaren Automotive
  • Mediatek
  • MEMA (Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association)
  • Mentor
  • MET Labs (MET Laboratories)
  • Michelin
  • Microchip Technology
  • Microsemi Corporation
  • Microsoft Corporation
  • MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China)
  • MinebeaMitsumi Group
  • MINI
  • Mitsuba Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
  • MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan)
  • Mobile Mark
  • Mobileye
  • Molex
  • MOLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea)
  • Motorola Mobility
  • Murata Manufacturing
  • NavInfo
  • Navistar
  • Navya
  • Nebula Link
  • NEC Corporation
  • NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
  • Neology
  • Neoway Technology
  • Neusoft Reach
  • NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden)
  • Nexar
  • Nexus Group
  • NGMN Alliance
  • NI (National Instruments)
  • NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan)
  • NIO
  • Nissan Motor Corporation
  • NJR (New Japan Radio)
  • Nokia
  • Nordsys
  • Noris Network
  • NTT DoCoMo
  • NXP Semiconductors
  • NYC DOT (New York City Department of Transportation)
  • Objective Software
  • OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers)
  • Oki Electric Industry
  • Oledcomm
  • OmniAir Consortium
  • OnBoard Security
  • oneM2M
  • OnStar
  • OPPO
  • Orange
  • P3 Group
  • PACCAR
  • Panasonic Corporation
  • Parsons Corporation
  • PCCW
  • Peloton Technology
  • Penta Security Systems
  • Phantom Auto
  • PIARC (World Road Association)
  • Pioneer Corporation
  • POLIS (Cities and Regions for Transport Innovation)
  • Prettl Group
  • Proximus Group
  • Pulse Electronics
  • pureLiFi
  • Q-Free
  • Qianxun SI (Spatial Intelligence)
  • QNX Software Systems
  • Qorvo
  • Qosmotec Software Solutions
  • Qualcomm
  • Quectel Wireless Solutions
  • Queensland TMR (Department of Transport and Main Roads)
  • RANIX
  • Redpine Signals
  • Renesas Electronics Corporation
  • Robert Bosch
  • Rohde & Schwarz
  • ROHM Semiconductor
  • Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
  • RoyalTek
  • S.E.A. Datentechnik
  • SAE International
  • SAE-China (Society of Automotive Engineers of China)
  • Safety Spectrum Coalition
  • SAIC Motor Corporation
  • Saleen Automotive
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Sanjole
  • Sanyo Techno Solutions Tottori
  • Savari
  • Scania
  • SEAT
  • Security Innovation
  • Sensefields
  • Sequans Communications
  • SGS
  • Shanghai Gotell Communication Technology Holdings (roam2free)
  • Siemens
  • Sierra Wireless
  • SIMCom Wireless Solutions
  • Sinclair Broadcast Group
  • SiriusXM
  • SK C&C
  • SK Telecom
  • Škoda Auto
  • Skyworks Solutions
  • Smart Mobile Labs
  • Smarteq Wireless
  • SMARTRAC
  • Socionext
  • SoftBank Group
  • Spirent Communications
  • SsangYong Motor Company
  • STAR Systems International
  • STMicroelectronics
  • sTraffic
  • Subaru Corporation
  • Sumitomo Electric Industries
  • Sunsea AIoT
  • Suzuki Motor Corporation
  • Swarco
  • Synopsys
  • TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards)
  • Taiwan Mobile
  • Taoglas
  • TAPCO (Traffic and Parking Control Company)
  • TASS International
  • Tata AutoComp Systems
  • Tata Elxsi
  • Tata Motors
  • TCA (Transport Certification Australia)
  • TE Connectivity
  • Telefónica Group
  • Telenor Connexion
  • Telenor Group
  • Telit Communications
  • Telstra
  • Telus Corporation
  • Tencent
  • Terranet
  • Tesla
  • THEA (Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority)
  • TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
  • TIAA (Telematics Industry Application Alliance)
  • TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
  • TISA (Travelers Information Services Association)
  • Tome Software
  • TomTom
  • Toshiba Corporation
  • TowerJazz
  • Toyota Motor Corporation
  • TransCore
  • Transport Canada
  • TRATON
  • Trek Bicycle Corporation
  • TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
  • TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
  • TTS (Traffic Technology Services)
  • TÜV Rheinland
  • TÜV SÜD
  • U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy)
  • U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
  • U.S. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration)
  • U.S. FMCSA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration)
  • U.S. FTA (Federal Transit Administration)
  • U.S. NHTSA (National Highway Transportation Safety Administration)
  • U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
  • Uber Technologies
  • U-Blox
  • UL
  • UMTRI (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute)
  • UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
  • Unex Technology Corporation
  • Unicore Communications
  • Unisoc
  • USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation)
  • Valens
  • Valeo
  • VdTÜV (Association of Technical Inspection Agencies)
  • Vector Informatik
  • Veniam
  • Veoneer
  • Verizon Communications
  • Verizon Connect
  • Viavi Solutions
  • VIIC (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium)
  • Vinli
  • Visteon Corporation
  • VLNComm
  • Vodafone Group
  • Volkswagen Group
  • Volvo Cars
  • Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks
  • VT iDirect
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
  • Wanji Technology
  • Waymo
  • Wayties
  • Wieson Technologies
  • WISeKey
  • WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
  • WSP Global
  • WYDOT (Wyoming Department of Transport)
  • Xiaomi Corporation
  • Xilinx
  • Yamaha Motor Company
  • YoGoKo
  • Yokowo
  • ZF
  • Zotye Auto (Zotye Automobile International)
  • ZTE

Table of Contents

1 Chapter 1: Introduction 44
1.1 Executive Summary 44
1.2 Topics Covered 46
1.3 Forecast Segmentation 48
1.4 Key Questions Answered 50
1.5 Key Findings 52
1.6 Methodology 54
1.7 Target Audience 55
1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned 56

2 Chapter 2: An Overview of V2X Communications 62
2.1 What is V2X Communications? 62
2.2 Key Characteristics of V2X Communications 63
2.2.1 Types of V2X Communications 63
2.2.1.1 V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) 64
2.2.1.2 V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) 64
2.2.1.3 V2P/V2D (Vehicle-to-Pedestrian/Device) 64
2.2.1.4 V2M (Vehicle-to-Motorcycle) 65
2.2.1.5 V2N (Vehicle-to-Network) 65
2.2.1.6 V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid), V2H (Vehicle-to-Home) & Adjacent-Concepts 65
2.2.2 Transmission Modes 66
2.2.2.1 Direct 66
2.2.2.2 Multi-Hop 66
2.2.2.3 Network-Assisted 66
2.2.3 V2X Message Sets & Service Capabilities 66
2.2.3.1 Periodic Awareness: CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message)/BSM (Basic Safety Message) Part 1 67
2.2.3.2 Event Triggered Safety Alerts: DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages)/BSM Part 2 67
2.2.3.3 CPM (Collective Perception Message) 68
2.2.3.4 MCM (Maneuver Coordination Message) 68
2.2.3.5 SPaT (Signal Phase & Timing) 68
2.2.3.6 MAP (Map Data Message) 68
2.2.3.7 GNSS Correction 69
2.2.3.8 SSM/SRM (Signal Status & Request Messages) 69
2.2.3.9 PSM (Personal Safety Message) 69
2.2.3.10 IVIM (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Information Message), TIM/RSM (Traveler Information/Road Safety Message) 69
2.2.3.11 BIM (Basic Information/Infrastructure Message) 70
2.2.3.12 MCDM (Multimedia Content Dissemination Message) 70
2.2.3.13 Video & Sensor Information Exchange 70
2.2.3.14 Standard Voice & Data Services 70
2.2.3.15 PVD (Probe Vehicle Data) 71
2.2.3.16 PDM (Probe Data Management) 71
2.2.3.17 Other V2X-Specific Message Types 71
2.3 Wireless Technologies for V2X Communications 73
2.3.1 IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) 73
2.3.2 C-V2X (Cellular V2X) 75
2.4 V2X Architecture & Key Elements 76
2.4.1 Vehicular OBUs (On-Board Units) 76
2.4.2 Non-Vehicular V2X-Capable Devices 77
2.4.3 RSUs (Roadside Units) 77
2.4.4 V2X Applications 78
2.4.4.1 V2X Application Software 78
2.4.4.2 V2X Middleware & Application Server 78
2.4.5 V2X Control Function & Cellular Network-Specific Elements 79
2.4.6 V2X Security Subsystem 80
2.5 Key Applications Areas 80
2.5.1 Road Safety 80
2.5.2 Traffic Management & Optimization 80
2.5.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information 81
2.5.4 Transit & Public Transport 81
2.5.5 Commercial Vehicle Operations 81
2.5.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety 82
2.5.7 Environmental Sustainability 82
2.5.8 Road Weather Management 82
2.5.9 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications 82
2.5.10 Value-Added Services 83
2.6 V2X Business Models 83
2.6.1 B2C (Business-to-Consumer): Premium Charge for Non-Safety Critical Applications 83
2.6.2 B2B (Business-to-Business): V2X Capabilities for Enterprise Vehicle Fleets, Road Operators & Transportation Agencies 84
2.6.3 B2B2X (Business-to-Business-to-Consumer/Business): Monetization Through Intermediaries 84
2.7 Market Drivers 85
2.7.1 Safety: Towards a Zero-Accident Environment 85
2.7.2 Traffic Efficiency: Minimizing Congestion & Streamlining Traffic Flow 85
2.7.3 Lessening the Environmental Impact of Transportation 86
2.7.4 Facilitating the Adoption of Smart Mobility Applications 86
2.7.5 Enabling Autonomous & Convenient Driving 86
2.7.6 Economic & Societal Benefits 88
2.7.7 Government-Led Efforts to Encourage V2X Adoption 88
2.7.8 Maturation of Enabling Wireless Technologies 88
2.8 Market Barriers 89
2.8.1 Lack of Critical Mass of V2X Equipped Vehicles 89
2.8.2 V2X Mandate Delays & Regulatory Uncertainties 89
2.8.3 The IEEE 802.11p vs. C-V2X Debate 89
2.8.4 Spectrum Sharing & Harmonization 90
2.8.5 Security & Privacy Concerns 90
2.8.6 Technical Complexity of Implementation 91
2.8.7 Business Model Challenges 91
2.8.8 Public Acceptance 91

3 Chapter 3: Key Enabling Technologies for V2X Communications 92
3.1 Legacy DSRC/ITS Technologies 92
3.1.1 CEN DSRC/MDR-DSRC/TTT-DSRC 92
3.1.2 915 MHz/UHF RFID 93
3.1.3 Active DSRC Systems 93
3.1.4 HDR DSRC 93
3.1.5 ITS Spot/ETC 2.0 94
3.1.6 VICS (Vehicle Information and Communications System) 94
3.2 IEEE 802.11p-Based DSRC Systems 95
3.2.1 WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment) 95
3.2.2 ITS-G5/C-ITS 96
3.2.3 ITS Connect/ARIB STD-T109 97
3.2.4 Other Variants 98
3.3 C-V2X Technology 99
3.3.1 LTE-V2X 100
3.3.2 5G NR-V2X 100
3.3.3 Interfaces for C-V2X Communications 101
3.3.3.1 PC5/Sidelink for Direct V2V, V2I & V2P Communications 101
3.3.3.1.1 Network-Coordinated Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 3 102
3.3.3.1.2 Distributed Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 4 103
3.3.3.2 LTE/NR-Uu for V2N Communications 103
3.4 Other Wireless Technologies 104
3.5 Complementary Technologies & Concepts 105
3.5.1 On-Board Sensors & ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) 105
3.5.1.1 Sensing Capabilities for Safety & Awareness 105
3.5.1.2 Enabling Sophisticated ADAS Applications 105
3.5.2 Vehicle Safety Systems 106
3.5.2.1 Active Safety Systems 106
3.5.2.2 Passive Safety & Countermeasures 106
3.5.3 Other In-Vehicle Systems 106
3.5.3.1 HMI (Human Machine Interface)/Display Systems 106
3.5.3.2 Augmented Reality & HUDs (Head-Up-Displays) 106
3.5.4 GNSS & Precise Positioning 107
3.5.4.1 Enabling Lane-Level Accuracy for V2X Applications 107
3.5.5 Big Data & Advanced Analytics 108
3.5.5.1 Streaming & Processing Massive Volumes of V2X-Generated Data 108
3.5.5.2 The Significance of Advanced Analytics 108
3.5.6 Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning 109
3.5.6.1 Self-Learning for Complex V2X Applications 109
3.5.6.2 Powering Fully-Autonomous Vehicles 110
3.5.7 Cloud Computing 110
3.5.7.1 Centralized Processing for Delay-Tolerant & Wide-Area Applications 111
3.5.8 Edge Computing 111
3.5.8.1 Delivering Localized Processing Power for Latency-Sensitive V2X Applications 111
3.5.9 Network Slicing 111
3.5.9.1 Flexible Allocation of C-V2X Resources over Mobile Networks 113

4 Chapter 4: V2X Application Scenarios & Use Cases 114
4.1 Road Safety Applications 114
4.1.1 V2V Safety Applications 114
4.1.1.1 Longitudinal Collision Risk Warning 114
4.1.1.1.1 Forward Collision Warning 114
4.1.1.1.2 Frontal/Head-On Collision Warning 115
4.1.1.2 Side Collision Risk Warning 115
4.1.1.3 Intersection Collision Risk Warning 115
4.1.1.4 Emergency Electronic Brake Lights 116
4.1.1.5 Intersection Movement Assistance 116
4.1.1.6 Intersection Priority Management 116
4.1.1.7 Blind Spot Warning 117
4.1.1.8 Lane Change Assistance 117
4.1.1.9 Highway Merge Assistance 117
4.1.1.10 Do Not Pass Warning 118
4.1.1.11 Left/Right Turn Assistance 118
4.1.1.12 Pre-Crash Sensing & Mitigation 118
4.1.1.13 Post-Crash Warning 118
4.1.1.14 Queue Warning 119
4.1.1.15 Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning 119
4.1.1.16 Vehicle Breakdown Warning 119
4.1.1.17 Control Loss Warning 120
4.1.1.18 Safety System Malfunction Warning 120
4.1.1.19 Wrong Way Driving Warning 120
4.1.1.20 Drowsy or Distracted Driver Warning 120
4.1.1.21 Overtaking Vehicle Warning 121
4.1.1.22 Tailgating Advisory 121
4.1.1.23 Transit Vehicle at Station/Stop Warnings 121
4.1.1.24 Vehicle Turning in Front of a Transit Vehicle Warning 121
4.1.1.25 V2V Situational Awareness 121
4.1.1.26 Decentralized Floating Vehicle Data 122
4.1.1.27 V2V Road Condition & Feature Notification 122
4.1.1.28 V2V Hazardous Location Alert 122
4.1.1.29 Cooperative Glare Reduction 123
4.1.1.30 Virtual Tow 123
4.1.2 V2I Safety Applications 123
4.1.2.1 In-Vehicle Signage, Speed Limits & Safety Information 123
4.1.2.2 Infrastructure-Assisted Collision Risk Warning 124
4.1.2.3 V2I-Based Emergency Brake Alert 124
4.1.2.4 Public Transport & Emergency Vehicle Prioritization 124
4.1.2.5 Intersection Safety & Management 124
4.1.2.6 Red Light Violation Warning 125
4.1.2.7 Railroad Crossing Violation Warning 125
4.1.2.8 Stop Sign Violation Warning 126
4.1.2.9 Stop Sign Movement Assistance 126
4.1.2.10 Blind Merge Warning 126
4.1.2.11 Exit Ramp Deceleration Warning 126
4.1.2.12 Wrong Way Entry Warning 127
4.1.2.13 Work Zone Warning 127
4.1.2.14 Curve Speed Warning 127
4.1.2.15 Reduced Speed Zone Warning 128
4.1.2.16 Lane Closure or Shift Warning 128
4.1.2.17 Restricted Lane Warnings 128
4.1.2.18 Oversize Vehicle Warning 128
4.1.2.19 Low Bridge Warning 129
4.1.2.20 Low Parking Structure Warning 129
4.1.2.21 V2I Situational Awareness 129
4.1.2.22 V2I Road Condition & Feature Notification 129
4.1.2.23 V2I Hazardous & Accident Prone Location Alert 130
4.1.2.24 Dynamic Roadside Lighting 130
4.1.2.25 Adaptive Headlamp Aiming 130
4.1.3 V2P/V2D, V2M & Other Safety Applications 130
4.1.3.1 Pedestrian, Cyclist & Other VRU (Vulnerable Road User) Detection 130
4.1.3.2 VRU Collision Warning 131
4.1.3.3 Pedestrian in Signalized Crosswalk Warning 131
4.1.3.4 Mobile Accessible Pedestrian Signal System 131
4.1.3.5 Transit Pedestrian Indication 132
4.1.3.6 Work Zone Safety Alerts for Maintenance Personnel 132
4.1.3.7 Animal Crossing Warning 132
4.1.3.8 Motorcycle Approach Indication 133
4.1.3.9 Motorcycle Approach Warning 133
4.1.3.10 Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning for Motorcyclists 134
4.2 Traffic Management & Optimization Applications 134
4.2.1 Traffic Light Optimal Speed Advisory 134
4.2.2 Intelligent Traffic Signal Control 134
4.2.3 Intelligent On-Ramp Metering 135
4.2.4 Traffic Signal Priority for Designated Vehicles 135
4.2.5 V2N-Based Traffic Flow Optimization 135
4.2.6 Adaptive Traffic Jam Avoidance 136
4.2.7 Dynamic Speed Harmonization 136
4.2.8 CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) 136
4.2.9 Flexible Lane Allocation & Control 137
4.2.10 ETC (Electronic Toll Collection)/Free-Flow Road Use Charging 137
4.2.11 Zone Access Control for Urban Areas 137
4.2.12 Road & Infrastructure Deterioration Diagnosis 138
4.2.13 Probe Vehicle Data 138
4.2.13.1 Traffic Operations 138
4.2.13.2 Road Network Monitoring, Maintenance & Planning 139
4.2.13.3 Other Transport Agency Applications 139
4.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Applications 139
4.3.1 Traffic Information & Recommended Itinerary 139
4.3.2 Enhanced Route Guidance and Navigation 140
4.3.3 V2X-Assisted Positioning 140
4.3.4 Point of Interest Notification 140
4.3.5 Fueling Information for Conventional, Electric & Alternative Fuel Vehicles 140
4.3.6 Limited Access Warning & Detour Notification 141
4.3.7 Work Zone Traveler Information 141
4.3.8 Enhanced ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems) 141
4.3.9 Alternative Multi-Modal Transport Information 142
4.3.10 Smart Parking 142
4.3.11 Smart Park & Ride 142
4.4 Transit & Public Transport Applications 143
4.4.1 Dynamic Public Transport Operations 143
4.4.1.1 Real-Time Trip Requests 143
4.4.1.2 Demand-Responsive Scheduling, Dispatching & Routing 143
4.4.2 Transit Signal Priority 144
4.4.3 Intermittent Bus Lanes 144
4.4.4 Protection of Transit Connections 144
4.4.5 Transit Stop Request 145
4.4.6 Enhanced ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) Service 145
4.4.7 Real-Time Ridesharing 145
4.4.8 Queue Management for Taxi Services 145
4.4.9 Route Guidance for the Visually Impaired 146
4.4.10 Mobile Payments for Public Transport 146
4.5 Commercial Vehicle Fleet & Roadside Applications 146
4.5.1 V2I-Based Data Collection for Fleet Management 146
4.5.2 Hazardous Material Cargo Tracking 147
4.5.3 Electronic Work Diaries 147
4.5.4 Freight-Specific Travel Information & Dynamic Routing 147
4.5.5 Drayage Operations Optimization 148
4.5.6 Container/Chassis Security & Operational Monitoring 148
4.5.7 Freight Signal Priority 148
4.5.8 Loading Zone Management 149
4.5.9 Smart Roadside Applications for Commercial Vehicles 149
4.5.10 Wireless Roadside Inspections 149
4.5.11 Smart Truck Parking 150
4.5.12 Intelligent Speed Compliance 150
4.5.13 Heavy Vehicle Road Use Monitoring 150
4.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety Applications 151
4.6.1 Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning 151
4.6.2 Emergency Vehicle Preemption 151
4.6.3 Emergency Incident Traffic Management 152
4.6.3.1 Incident Scene Pre-Arrival Staging Guidance for Emergency Responders 152
4.6.3.2 Incident Scene Work Zone Alerts for Drivers & Workers 152
4.6.3.3 Emergency Communications & Evacuation 152
4.6.4 Vehicle-Associated Information Sharing for Emergency Response 153
4.6.5 Automatic SOS/Crash Notification Relay 153
4.6.6 Wide-Area Emergency Alerts 153
4.6.7 Disaster-Related Traveler Information Broadcast 154
4.6.8 Stolen Vehicle Notification & Tracking 154
4.6.9 V2X-Assisted Border Management Systems 154
4.7 Environmental Sustainability Applications 155
4.7.1 Eco-Traffic Signal Timing 155
4.7.2 Eco-Traffic Signal Priority 155
4.7.3 Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections 155
4.7.4 Eco-Speed Harmonization 156
4.7.5 Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control 156
4.7.6 Eco-Ramp Metering 156
4.7.7 Eco-Lanes Management 156
4.7.8 Low Emissions Zone Management 157
4.7.9 Dynamic Emissions Pricing 157
4.7.10 Connected Eco-Driving 157
4.7.11 Eco-Traveler Information Dissemination 158
4.7.12 Predictive Eco-Routing 158
4.7.13 Eco-Integrated Corridor Management 158
4.7.14 Road Environment Monitoring 158
4.8 Road Weather Management Applications 159
4.8.1 V2X-Assisted Road Weather Performance Management 159
4.8.2 Real-Time Alerts and Advisories 159
4.8.3 Spot Weather Impact Warning 159
4.8.4 Road Weather Information for Commercial & Emergency Response Vehicles 160
4.8.5 Weather Responsive Traffic Management 160
4.8.6 Enhanced MDSS (Maintenance Decision Support Systems) 161
4.8.7 Monitoring of Road Maintenance Vehicles & Operations 161
4.9 Value Added Services 161
4.9.1 Electronic "Drive-Thru" Payments 161
4.9.2 Wireless Advertising 162
4.9.3 Automatic Vehicle-Based Access Control 162
4.9.4 V2V Instant Messaging 162
4.9.5 V2I & V2V-Assisted Internet Connectivity 162
4.9.6 Media/Map Downloads 163
4.9.7 Vehicle Software Provisioning & Updates 163
4.9.8 Personal Data Synchronization 163
4.9.9 Vehicle Caravan Organization 164
4.9.10 Remote Diagnostics & Maintenance 164
4.9.11 Rental Car Processing 164
4.9.12 Insurance & Financial Services 164
4.9.13 Electric Charging Station Management 165
4.9.14 Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging 165
4.9.15 Other Applications 165
4.10 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications 166
4.10.1 Semi & Fully-Autonomous Driving 166
4.10.2 Cooperative Automated Maneuvering 167
4.10.3 Vehicle Platooning 167
4.10.4 Coordinated Signaling for Autonomous Vehicles & Platoons 168
4.10.5 Real-Time HD Mapping & Autonomous Navigation 168
4.10.6 Extended Sensors for Situational Awareness 169
4.10.7 See-Through Visibility 169
4.10.8 Remote/Tele-Operated Driving 170
4.10.9 Precision Positioning-Assisted Vulnerable Road User Protection 170
4.10.10 Data Uploads for Autonomous Driving Algorithm Tuning 171
4.10.11 Connected Powertrain Optimization 172

5 Chapter 5: V2X Deployment Case Studies 174
5.1 AACVTE (Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment): Setting a Standard for the Nationwide Implementation of V2X 174
5.1.1 Historical Roots: SPMD (Safety Pilot Model Deployment) 174
5.1.2 Transition from a Model Deployment to an Operational V2X Environment 174
5.1.3 AACVTE Deployment Status 175
5.1.4 Supported V2X Applications 176
5.1.5 Key Achievements & Future Plans 176
5.2 AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed: Promoting Safe, Smart Transportation Through V2X 177
5.2.1 Supporting Efforts for Safe, Smart Transportation in British Columbia & Canada 177
5.2.2 AURORA Test Bed Overview 177
5.2.3 Supported V2X Applications 178
5.2.4 Future Research Ventures 178
5.3 BMW Group: Pushing C-V2X Adoption Worldwide 179
5.3.1 Commitment to C-V2X Technology 179
5.3.2 Efforts to Urge the Adoption of Technology-Neutral Legislation for V2X Communications 179
5.3.3 V2X Engagements in Europe & Abroad 180
5.3.4 Supported V2X Applications 180
5.3.5 Commercial Rollout Plans 181
5.4 CDOT's (Colorado Department of Transportation) RoadX: Building Colorado’s IoR (Internet of Roads) with V2X 182
5.4.1 RoadX "Connection" Action Area: V2X Development Program 182
5.4.2 V2X Deployment Status 182
5.4.3 Supported V2X Applications 184
5.4.4 Future Plans for Full-Scale Deployment 184
5.5 City of Wuxi's LTE-V2X Project: Deploying China's First City-Level V2X Implementation 185
5.5.1 Establishing a City-Level LTE-V2X Demonstration Area 185
5.5.2 V2X Deployment Status 185
5.5.3 Supported V2X Applications 186
5.5.4 Next Steps & Plans for Full-Scale Adoption 186
5.6 Daimler: Leveraging Cellular Technology for V2X Applications 187
5.6.1 Daimler's Position on IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X Technologies 187
5.6.2 Car-to-X Communication via Cellular Radio 187
5.6.3 V2X Engagements Worldwide 188
5.6.4 Supported V2X Applications 189
5.6.5 Commercial Rollout Plans 189
5.7 Ford Motor Company: Fast Tracking C-V2X Technology into Vehicles 190
5.7.1 Validating C-V2X Technology in Ford Vehicles 190
5.7.2 V2X Engagements Worldwide 190
5.7.2.1 United States 190
5.7.2.2 Europe 191
5.7.2.3 China 191
5.7.3 Supported V2X Applications 191
5.7.4 Commercial Rollout Plans 192
5.8 GM (General Motors): Commercializing the World's First 5.9 GHz V2X-Equipped Vehicles 193
5.8.1 Rolling Out Production-Ready Vehicle Models with V2X Capabilities in North America 193
5.8.2 Key Applications Supported by GM's V2X System 193
5.8.2.1 V2V Applications 194
5.8.2.2 Planned Support for V2I, V2P & Other Applications 194
5.8.3 V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models 195
5.8.4 Prospects of Commercializing V2X in Other Markets 195
5.9 Groupe PSA: Pursuing Both IEEE 802.11p & C-V2X Technologies 196
5.9.1 Technology-Neutral Approach Towards V2X 196
5.9.2 V2X Engagements Worldwide 196
5.9.2.1 IEEE 802.11p 196
5.9.2.2 C-V2X 197
5.9.3 Supported V2X Applications 197
5.9.4 Commercial Rollout Plans 198
5.10 Groupe Renault: Testing V2X Connectivity Under Real-Life Traffic Conditions 199
5.10.1 Support for ITS-G5/IEEE 802.11p 199
5.10.2 SCOOP@F Project & Other V2X Engagements 199
5.10.3 Supported V2X Applications 200
5.10.4 Commercial Rollout Plans 200
5.11 HKT/PCCW: Utilizing V2X to Empower Smart & Safe Mobility in Hong Kong 201
5.11.1 Smart Mobility Consortium: Building a C-V2X Powered Smart & Safe Mobility System 201
5.11.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations 201
5.11.3 Supported V2X Applications 203
5.11.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology 203
5.12 InterCor (Interoperable Corridors): Streamlining the Implementation of Cross Border & Interoperable V2X Services 204
5.12.1 Delivering Interoperable V2X Services Through a Sustainable Network of European C-ITS Corridors 204
5.12.2 Relationship with the C-Roads Platform 205
5.12.3 V2X Deployment Overview 205
5.12.3.1 Dutch Section of the C-ITS Corridor (Netherlands-Germany-Austria) 205
5.12.3.2 SCOOP@F: French Corridor 206
5.12.3.3 United Kingdom's A2M2 Connected Corridor 206
5.12.3.4 Belgium/Flanders C-ITS Initiative 206
5.12.4 Supported V2X Applications 207
5.12.5 Testfests to Validate Common Specifications 207
5.12.5.1 ITS-G5 Services 207
5.12.5.2 GLOSA (Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory) Pre-Testfest 208
5.12.5.3 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) Security 208
5.12.5.4 Hybrid ITS-G5/Cellular Communications 208
5.12.5.5 Cross-Border Interoperability 208
5.12.6 Next Steps: Project Completion, Harmonized V2X Specifications & Testing of Advanced V2X Applications 209
5.13 Ipswich Connected Vehicle Pilot: Laying the Technical Foundations for V2X Rollouts in Australia 210
5.13.1 Preparing for the Arrival of V2X on Queensland Roads 210
5.13.2 Pilot Planning & Deployment Status 210
5.13.3 Supported V2X Applications 211
5.13.4 Plans for On-Road Testing & Next Steps 211
5.14 JLR (Jaguar Land Rover): Making Journeys Safe, Comfortable & Stress-Free with V2X 212
5.14.1 Enhancing ADAS Capabilities with V2X for Safe & Comfortable Driving 212
5.14.2 V2X Engagements in the United Kingdom 212
5.14.3 Supported V2X Applications 214
5.14.4 Commercial Rollout Plans 214
5.15 NTT DoCoMo: Leading the Path Towards Connected Cars & Roads of the Future with V2X 215
5.15.1 Developing C-V2X Technology to Support Future Mobility Use Cases 215
5.15.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations 215
5.15.3 Supported V2X Applications 216
5.15.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology 217
5.16 SAIC Motor Corporation: Powering Intelligent Connected Vehicles with V2X 218
5.16.1 Advancing the Development of V2X to Facilitate Intelligent Driving 218
5.16.2 V2X Engagements in China 218
5.16.3 Supported V2X Applications 220
5.16.4 Commercial Rollout Plans 220
5.17 Telstra: Making Australia's Roads Safe, More Efficient & Better-Prepared for Autonomous Driving with V2X 221
5.17.1 Telstra's V2X Project: Focus on Safety, Traffic Efficiency & Autonomous Driving 221
5.17.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations 221
5.17.3 Supported V2X Applications 222
5.17.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology 222
5.18 Toyota Motor Corporation: Bringing V2X to Mass-Market Vehicle Models 223
5.18.1 ITS Connect: Commercializing the World's First DSRC-Based V2X System in Japan 223
5.18.2 Key Applications Supported by the ITS Connect System 223
5.18.2.1 V2V Applications 223
5.18.2.2 V2I Applications 225
5.18.2.3 Planned Support for V2P & Other Applications 226
5.18.3 V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models & RSU Installation in Japan 226
5.18.4 Future Plans to Introduce V2X-Equipped Vehicles in the United States & Other Countries 226
5.19 USDOT Connected Vehicle Pilots: Helping V2X Make the Final Leap into Real-World Deployment 228
5.19.1 NYC DOT (New York City Department of Transportation) Connected Vehicle Pilot 228
5.19.1.1 Pilot Deployment Overview 229
5.19.1.2 Supported V2X Applications 229
5.19.1.3 Current Status of the Pilot Deployment 230
5.19.2 THEA (Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority) Connected Vehicle Pilot 230
5.19.2.1 Pilot Deployment Overview 230
5.19.2.2 Supported V2X Applications 230
5.19.2.3 Current Status of the Pilot Deployment 231
5.19.3 WYDOT (Wyoming Department of Transport) Connected Vehicle Pilot 231
5.19.3.1 Pilot Deployment Overview 232
5.19.3.2 Supported V2X Applications 232
5.19.3.3 Current Status of the Pilot Deployment 232
5.19.4 Future Plans for Post-Pilot Operations 233
5.20 Vodafone Group: Improving Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency with V2X 234
5.20.1 Creating a Step-Change in Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency 234
5.20.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations 234
5.20.3 Supported V2X Applications 236
5.20.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology 236
5.21 Volkswagen Group: Pioneering the Rollout of V2X-Equipped Vehicles in Europe 237
5.21.1 WLANp: Group-Wide Implementation of IEEE 802.11p-Based V2X Technology in 2019 237
5.21.1.1 Supported V2X Applications 237
5.21.1.2 Efforts to Accelerate the Adoption of V2X Technology 238
5.21.1.3 Integrating V2X-Capable Roadside Infrastructure & Other Road Users 238
5.21.2 Audi: Delivering V2I Applications via On-Board LTE Connectivity 238
5.21.3 Ducati Motor Holding: Developing V2X Interoperability Between Motorcycles, Vehicles & Infrastructure 239
5.21.4 SEAT: Advancing V2X-Based Assisted Driving Applications 239
5.21.5 TRATON (Scania & MAN): Piloting Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications 240
5.22 Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks: Enabling Truck Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications with V2X 241
5.22.1 Utilizing V2X to Develop Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications 241
5.22.2 V2X Engagements Worldwide 241
5.22.3 Supported V2X Applications 242
5.22.4 Commercial Rollout Plans 242
5.23 Other Notable V2X Engagements 243
5.23.1 Automotive OEM Commitments 243
5.23.2 Mobile Operator-Led C-V2X Projects & Trials 250
5.23.3 Other Commercial, Pilot & Trial V2X Deployments 256

6 Chapter 6: V2X Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage 258
6.1 Frequency Bands for V2X Communications 258
6.1.1 Legacy V2I Systems 258
6.1.1.1 915 MHz 258
6.1.1.2 Other Sub-1 GHz Bands 258
6.1.1.3 2.4 GHz 259
6.1.1.4 5.8 GHz 259
6.1.2 Advanced V2X Technologies 259
6.1.2.1 760 MHz 259
6.1.2.2 3.4 – 3.8 GHz 259
6.1.2.3 5.9 GHz 260
6.1.2.4 Higher Frequencies 260
6.2 North America 261
6.2.1 United States 261
6.2.2 Canada 262
6.3 Asia Pacific 262
6.3.1 Australia 262
6.3.2 China 262
6.3.3 Japan 263
6.3.4 South Korea 263
6.3.5 Singapore 263
6.3.6 Taiwan 264
6.3.7 Thailand 264
6.3.8 India 264
6.3.9 Rest of Asia Pacific 265
6.4 Europe 265
6.4.1 EU & EFTA Countries 265
6.4.2 Turkey 266
6.4.3 Russia 266
6.4.4 Other Countries 267
6.5 Middle East & Africa 267
6.5.1 GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) 267
6.5.2 Iran 268
6.5.3 Israel 268
6.5.4 South Africa 268
6.5.5 Rest of the Middle East & Africa 268
6.6 Latin & Central America 269
6.6.1 Brazil 269
6.6.2 Mexico 269
6.6.3 Rest of Latin & Central America 269

7 Chapter 7: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives 270
7.1 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) 270
7.1.1 Release 14: LTE-V2X/Phase 1 270
7.1.2 Release 15: eV2X (Enhanced V2X)/Phase 2 271
7.1.3 Release 16: 5G NR-V2X/Phase 3 272
7.2 5GAA (5G Automotive Association) 272
7.2.1 5G/C-V2X Advocacy Efforts 272
7.2.2 Working Groups 272
7.2.2.1 WG1: Use Cases & Technical Requirements 273
7.2.2.2 WG2: System Architecture & Solution Development 273
7.2.2.3 WG3: Evaluation, Testbeds & Pilots 273
7.2.2.4 WG4: Standards & Spectrum 273
7.2.2.5 WG5: Business Models & Go-To-Market Strategies 274
7.3 5G-Connected Mobility Consortium 274
7.3.1 5G-Based V2X R&D Efforts 274
7.4 AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) 275
7.4.1 Frequency Coordination for V2X Communications 275
7.4.2 V2X Policy, Deployment Guidance & Related Efforts 275
7.4.3 Work on Connected Autonomous Driving 276
7.5 ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association) 276
7.5.1 Connected & Automated Driving-Related Work 276
7.6 AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium) 277
7.6.1 Edge Computing System Design for V2I & V2N Applications 277
7.7 Amsterdam Group 277
7.7.1 V2X Deployment Roadmap 277
7.7.2 Corridor Initiatives 278
7.7.3 Functional Specifications & Other V2X-Related Efforts 278
7.8 ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan) 278
7.8.1 ARIB STD T75: 5.8 GHz DSRC System for V2I Applications 279
7.8.2 ARIB STD T88: DSRC Application Sub-Layer 279
7.8.3 ARIB STD T110: DSRC Basic Application Interface 279
7.8.4 ARIB STD-T109: 760 MHz Advanced V2X System 279
7.9 U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy) 280
7.9.1 NEXTCAR (Next-Generation Energy Technologies for Connected & Automated On-Road Vehicles) 280
7.9.1.1 Use of V2X Connectivity for Vehicle Control & Powertrain Optimization 280
7.10 ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures) 281
7.10.1 V2X-Related Activities 281
7.11 Association of Global Automakers 281
7.11.1 Connected Automation Advocacy 281
7.12 ASTM International 282
7.12.1 Legacy DSRC Standards 282
7.12.2 ASTM E2213-03: 5.9 GHz DSRC MAC & PHY Specifications 282
7.13 ATA (American Trucking Associations) 283
7.13.1 V2X-Related Activities 283
7.14 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) 283
7.14.1 V2X Security Guidance & Requirements 283
7.14.2 Other V2X-Related Work 284
7.15 Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers) 284
7.15.1 V2X-Related Activities 284
7.16 AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) 285
7.16.1 V2X Stack Specifications 285
7.17 C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium) 285
7.17.1 BSP (Basic System Profile) for V2X Systems in Europe 285
7.17.2 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) for V2X Security 286
7.17.3 Advocacy Efforts to Preserve the 5.9 GHz Band for ITS-G5 286
7.17.4 Other V2X-Related Efforts 286
7.18 CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles) 287
7.18.1 V2X Working Group 287
7.19 CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership) 288
7.19.1 SCMS (Security Credential Management System) for V2X Communications 288
7.19.2 Other V2X-Related Efforts 288
7.20 CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition 289
7.20.1 CAV-ELT (Connected and Automated Vehicle Executive Leadership Team): CAV-Focused Working Groups 289
7.20.2 V2I DC (Vehicle to Infrastructure Deployment Coalition): V2I Working Groups 289
7.21 CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium) 290
7.21.1 V2X-Related Projects 290
7.22 CCSA (China Communications Standards Association) 291
7.22.1 LTE-V2X Standardization 291
7.23 CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads) 291
7.23.1 V2X-Related Activities 291
7.24 ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium 292
7.24.1 C-V2X Field Trials & Demonstrations 292
7.25 CEN (European Committee for Standardization) 293
7.25.1 CEN TC 278 293
7.25.1.1 CEN DSRC Family of Standards 293
7.25.1.2 EFC (Electronic Feed Collection) & V2I Applications 293
7.25.1.3 Standards for C-ITS/Advanced V2X Systems 294
7.26 CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) 295
7.26.1 ITS-Related Standards 295
7.27 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) 296
7.27.1 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee) 296
7.27.2 WG SE (Working Group Spectrum Engineering) 296
7.27.3 Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications in Europe 296
7.28 C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance) 297
7.28.1 Chinese National Standards for V2X 297
7.29 CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers) 298
7.29.1 V2X-Related Activities 298
7.30 CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium) 298
7.30.1 Standardization for Motorcycle-Specific V2X Systems 298
7.30.2 Feasibility Testing & Prototyping 299
7.31 EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance) 299
7.31.1 Efforts to Facilitate the Deployment of Connected & Automated Driving 300
7.32 ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council) 300
7.32.1 Working Group on Connectivity & Automated Driving 300
7.33 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) 301
7.33.1 TC ITS (Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems) 301
7.33.1.1 ETSI TR 101 607: C-ITS (Cooperative ITS) Release 1 301
7.33.1.2 ETSI EN 302 663: ITS-G5 Access Layer Standard 302
7.33.1.3 ETSI TS 102 724: Harmonized Channel Specifications for ITS-G5 302
7.33.1.4 ETSI TS 102 792: Co-Existence Between CEN DSRC & ITS-G5 302
7.33.1.5 ETSI TS 102 687/103 175: DCC (Decentralized Congestion Control) Mechanisms 303
7.33.1.6 ETSI EN 302 665: ITS Communications Architecture 303
7.33.1.7 ETSI EN 302 637-2: CAMs (Cooperative Awareness Messages) 303
7.33.1.8 ETSI EN 302 637-3: DENMs (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages) 304
7.33.1.9 ETSI EN 302 895: LDM (Local Dynamic Map) Specification 304
7.33.1.10 ETSI TS 103 301: Protocols & Communication Requirements for Infrastructure Services 304
7.33.1.11 ETSI TS 101 539 Series: Safety-Related V2X Applications 304
7.33.1.12 ETSI TS 101 556 Series: V2I Applications 305
7.33.1.13 ETSI TS 102 894-1: Facility Layer Structure, Functional Requirements & Specifications 305
7.33.1.14 TS 102 890 Series: Additional Facility Layer Specifications 305
7.33.1.15 ETSI TS 102 894-2: Common Data Dictionary 305
7.33.1.16 ETSI EN 302 636 Series: GeoNetworking Protocol 306
7.33.1.17 ETSI TS 102 731, 102 940-943, 103 097: V2X Security Standards 306
7.33.1.18 Other Release 1 Standards 307
7.33.1.19 Work on C-ITS Release 2 & Advanced V2X Applications 307
7.33.2 ETSI TC ERM (Electromagnetic Compatibility & Radio Spectrum Matters) 308
7.33.2.1 ETSI EN 302 571: Harmonized Standard for ITS-G5 (5.9 GHz) Spectrum 308
7.33.2.2 ETSI EN 302 686: Harmonized Standard for 63 – 64 GHz ITS Spectrum 308
7.33.3 Other Complementary Standards 309
7.34 EU Mandates & Directives 309
7.34.1 Action Plan for the Deployment of ITS 309
7.34.2 Mandate M/453 on Cooperative Systems for Intelligent Transport 309
7.34.3 EU ITS Directive 2010/40/EU 310
7.34.4 Supporting Groups for the EU ITS Directive 310
7.34.4.1 EIC (European ITS Committee) 310
7.34.4.2 European ITS Advisory Group 310
7.34.5 Mandate M/546 on Urban ITS 311
7.34.6 Declaration of Amsterdam on Connected & Automated Driving 311
7.34.7 COM (2016) 766: EU C-ITS Strategy 311
7.34.8 Letter of Intent on Cooperative, Connected & Automated Mobility 312
7.34.9 Third EU Mobility Package 312
7.34.10 C-ITS Delegated Act Under Directive 2010/40/EU: Specifications for the Provision of C-ITS 313
7.35 EU-Funded V2X Deployment Initiatives & Projects 313
7.35.1 C-ITS Deployment Platform 313
7.35.2 C-Roads Platform 314
7.35.3 Cooperative ITS Corridor 314
7.35.4 InterCor (Interoperable Corridors) 315
7.35.5 CONCORDA (Connected Corridor for Driving Automation) 315
7.35.6 C-MobILE (Accelerating C-ITS Mobility Innovation & Deployment in Europe) 315
7.35.7 NEWBITS (New Business models for ITS) 316
7.35.8 CIMEC (Cooperative ITS for Mobility in European Cities) 316
7.35.9 CODECS (Cooperative ITS Deployment Coordination Support) 316
7.35.10 MAVEN (Managing Automated Vehicles Enhances Network) 317
7.35.11 TransAID (Transition Areas for Infrastructure-Assisted Driving) 317
7.35.12 Auto C-ITS 317
7.35.13 C-V2X Projects 318
7.35.13.1 5GCAR (Fifth Generation Communication Automotive Research & Innovation) 318
7.35.13.2 5GCroco (5G Cross Border Control) 318
7.35.13.3 5G-Carmen (5G for Connected & Automated Road Mobility in the European Union) 319
7.35.13.4 5G-Mobix (5G for Cooperative & Connected Automated Mobility on X-Border Corridors) 319
7.35.14 Other EU-Funded Projects 319
7.35.15 CAD (Connected Automated Driving) Initiative 323
7.35.15.1 ARCADE (Aligning Research & Innovation for Connected & Automated Driving in Europe) 323
7.35.15.2 CARTRE (Coordination of Automated Road Transport Deployment for Europe) 323
7.35.15.3 SCOUT (Safe & COnnected AUtomation in Road Transport) 324
7.35.15.4 EUCAD (European Conference on Connected & Automated Driving) 324
7.35.16 Round Table on CAD (Connected & Automated Driving) 324
7.35.17 Gear 2030 HLG (High Level Group) 325
7.36 EU-US C-ITS Task Force 326
7.36.1 HWG (Standards Harmonization Working Group) & HTGs (Harmonization Task Groups) 326
7.36.1.1 HTG 1: ITS Security 326
7.36.1.2 HTG 2: BSM (Basic Safety Message)/CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) Harmonization 326
7.36.1.3 HTG 3: ITS Communications 327
7.36.1.4 HTG 4/5: Infrastructure Messages 327
7.36.1.5 HTG 6: C-ITS Security Policy 327
7.36.1.6 HTG 7: Standards Selection, Gap Analysis & Identifiers 327
7.36.1.7 HTG 8 & 9: Candidate Future Work Items 327
7.37 GCF (Global Certification Forum) 328
7.37.1 C-V2X Certification Program 328
7.38 GENIVI Alliance 328
7.38.1 V2X-Related Activities 328
7.39 GSMA 329
7.39.1 C-V2X Advocacy Efforts 329
7.40 IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 329
7.40.1 ISO/IEC JTC 1 329
7.40.1.1 SC31 WG4: RFID Standards for V2I Applications 330
7.40.1.2 Other V2X-Related Standardization Activities 330
7.41 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 330
7.41.1 IEEE 802.11p/OCB for V2X Communications 330
7.41.2 IEEE 1609.x Family of Standards for WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) 331
7.41.3 IEEE 802.11 NGV (Next Generation V2X) Study Group 333
7.41.3.1 IEEE 802.11bd Amendment Project 333
7.41.4 IEEE P2040 for Connected, Automated & Intelligent Vehicles 333
7.41.5 IEEE P2690 for Charging Network Management Protocol in Electric Vehicle Charging Systems 334
7.41.6 Other Relevant Standards 334
7.42 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) 335
7.42.1 IPWAVE (IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) WG 335
7.42.1.1 IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB 335
7.43 IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore) 336
7.43.1 TSAC (Telecommunications Standards Advisory Committee) 336
7.43.1.1 Technical Specification for DSRC 336
7.44 IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group 337
7.44.1 C-V2X Working Group 337
7.45 ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada) 337
7.45.1 Spectrum Allocation for V2X 338
7.45.2 RSS-252: Certification Requirements for V2X OBU Devices 338
7.46 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 339
7.46.1 TC 204 339
7.46.1.1 V2X Communications 339
7.46.1.2 V2X Applications & Complementary Technologies 339
7.46.1.3 V2X Security 340
7.47 ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers) 341
7.47.1 Connected Vehicle Initiative 341
7.47.2 Cybersecurity Framework & Tools for Roadway Infrastructure 341
7.47.3 Other V2X-Related Efforts 342
7.48 ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America) 342
7.48.1 V2X Spectrum Advocacy 342
7.48.2 V2X Task Force 342
7.48.3 Other V2X-Related Efforts 343
7.49 ERTICO – ITS Europe 343
7.49.1 V2X Research, Pilot & Deployment Project Management 343
7.49.2 Other Efforts Related to Connected & Automated Driving 343
7.50 Other National & Regional ITS Representative Societies 344
7.50.1 ATEC ITS France 344
7.50.2 ITS Asia-Pacific 344
7.50.3 ITS Australia 345
7.50.4 ITS Canada 345
7.50.5 ITS China 345
7.50.6 ITS Japan 345
7.50.7 ITS Korea 346
7.50.8 ITS Singapore 346
7.50.9 ITS Taiwan 346
7.50.10 ITS UK (United Kingdom) 346
7.50.11 Others 347
7.51 ITS Connect Promotion Consortium 347
7.51.1 TD-001: Inter-Vehicle Communication Message Specifications 347
7.51.2 Other Specifications & Guidelines 347
7.52 ITS Info-Communications Forum 348
7.52.1 Guidelines for 760 MHz & 5.8 GHz V2X Systems 348
7.52.2 Work on C-V2X/Technology-Neutral Applications 349
7.53 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) 349
7.53.1 ITU-R (ITU Radiocommunication Sector) 349
7.53.1.1 SG5 WP5A, WG 5A-5 (Study Group 5, Working Party 5A, Working Group 5) 349
7.53.1.2 M.1453: ITS – DSRC at 5.8 GHz 350
7.53.1.3 M.1890: Guidelines & Objectives for ITS 350
7.53.1.4 M.2084: Radio Interface Standards of V2X Communications for ITS Applications 350
7.53.1.5 M.[ITS_FRQ]: Harmonization of Frequency Bands for ITS 351
7.53.1.6 V2X-Related Study Items & Supplementary Reports 351
7.53.2 ITU-T (ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector) 351
7.53.2.1 SG17: Recommendations for V2X Security 352
7.53.2.2 SG20: Framework & Requirements for C-ITS/Safety-Related Services 352
7.53.2.3 V2X-Related Recommendations in Other SGs 352
7.53.2.4 CITS (Collaboration on ITS Communication Standards) 353
7.54 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) 353
7.54.1 V2X-Related Standards 353
7.55 JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan) 354
7.55.1 ITS Standardization Committee 354
7.55.1.1 V2X-Related Standardization Work 354
7.56 KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards) 354
7.56.1 V2X-Related Standardization Efforts 355
7.57 KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers) 355
7.57.1 V2X-Related Activities 355
7.58 Linux Foundation 355
7.58.1 AGL (Automotive Grade Linux): Open Software Stack for Connected Vehicles 356
7.59 MEMA (Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association) 356
7.59.1 V2X-Related Activities 356
7.60 MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China) 357
7.60.1 CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology) 357
7.60.1.1 V2X Development, Testing & Promotion in China 357
7.61 MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan) 358
7.61.1 V2X Deployment & Related Efforts 358
7.62 MOLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea) 358
7.62.1 C-ITS Pilot Project 358
7.62.2 Other V2X Related Efforts 359
7.63 U.S. NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research Program) 359
7.63.1 NCHRP 20-102: Impacts of Connected Vehicles & Automated Vehicles on State & Local Transportation Agencies 359
7.63.2 NCHRP 03-127: Cybersecurity of Traffic Management Systems 360
7.63.3 NCHRP 20-24(98): Connected/Automated Vehicle Research Roadmap for AASHTO 361
7.63.4 Other Projects 361
7.64 NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) 362
7.64.1 NTCIP (National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol) 362
7.65 NGMN Alliance 363
7.65.1 V2X Task Force & White Paper 363
7.66 NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan) 364
7.66.1 V2X-Related Activities 364
7.67 U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 364
7.67.1 CSF (Cybersecurity Framework) 364
7.67.1.1 Application of NIST's CSF to Connected Vehicle Environments 365
7.68 OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers) 365
7.68.1 V2X Standards Harmonization Efforts 365
7.69 OmniAir Consortium 366
7.69.1 Connected Vehicle Certification Program 366
7.69.2 Other V2X-Related Activities 366
7.70 oneM2M 367
7.70.1 V2X-Related Standardization Efforts 367
7.71 PIARC (World Road Association) 367
7.71.1 Task Force B.1: V2X Technology in Road Design & Infrastructure 367
7.71.2 Task Force B.2: Automated Vehicles 368
7.71.3 Other V2X-Related Activities 368
7.72 POLIS (Cities and Regions for Transport Innovation) 368
7.72.1 V2X-Related Activities 368
7.73 SAE International 369
7.73.1 DSRC TC (Technical Committee) 369
7.73.1.1 SAE J2735: DSRC Message Set Dictionary 369
7.73.1.2 SAE J2945/x Suite of Standards for V2X Applications 370
7.73.1.3 Other DSRC TC Standards 371
7.73.2 C-V2X TC (Technical Committee) 372
7.73.2.1 SAE J3161: On-Board System Requirements for LTE V2X/V2V Safety Communications 372
7.73.2.2 Standardization Efforts for Advanced V2X Applications 373
7.73.2.3 SAE J3186: MSCS (Maneuver Sharing & Coordinating Service) 373
7.73.2.4 Addressing the Needs of Road Operators 374
7.73.3 Vehicle Cybersecurity Systems Engineering Committee 374
7.73.3.1 J3061: Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Automotive Systems 374
7.73.3.2 Other Vehicle Cybersecurity Standards 375
7.73.4 Other V2X-Related Standards 375
7.74 SAE-China (Society of Automotive Engineers of China) 376
7.74.1 T/CSAE 53-2017: V2X Application Layer Standard 376
7.74.2 Other V2X-Related Efforts 376
7.75 Safety Spectrum Coalition 377
7.75.1 V2X Spectrum Advocacy 377
7.76 SIP (Japan's Cross-Ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program) 377
7.76.1 SIP-adus (Automated Driving for Universal Services) 377
7.76.1.1 V2X-Related R&D Efforts 378
7.77 TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards) 378
7.77.1 TC8 (Technical Committee 8): IoV (Internet of Vehicles) & Automated Driving 378
7.78 TCA (Transport Certification Australia) 379
7.78.1 C-ITS Standardization, Interoperability, Security & Related-Efforts 379
7.78.2 National Telematics Framework: Facilitating Telematics-Related V2X Applications 379
7.79 TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) 380
7.79.1 V2X-Related Advocacy Efforts 380
7.80 TIAA (Telematics Industry Application Alliance) 380
7.80.1 V2X-Related Standards, Demonstrations & Testing 380
7.81 TISA (Travelers Information Services Association) 381
7.81.1 V2X-Related Activities 381
7.82 Transport Canada 381
7.82.1 National Framework & Programs for Automated & Connected Vehicles 381
7.82.2 Canada-U.S RCC (Regulatory Cooperation Council): Connected Vehicles Work-Plan 382
7.83 TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea) 382
7.83.1 Vehicle Communications System Standards 382
7.84 TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan) 383
7.84.1 V2X-Related Standardization Efforts 383
7.85 UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) 384
7.85.1 WP.29 (Working Party 29): World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations 384
7.85.2 Working Party on Automated/Autonomous & Connected Vehicles 384
7.86 USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation) 385
7.86.1 ITS Joint Program Office 385
7.86.2 CV (Connected Vehicle) Program 385
7.86.2.1 CV Pilot Deployments 386
7.86.2.2 CV Application Prototyping 386
7.86.3 Connected Autonomous Vehicle Research 387
7.86.4 ITS Standards Program 387
7.86.5 ARC-IT (Architecture Reference for Cooperative & Intelligent Transportation) 388
7.86.6 U.S. NHTSA (National Highway Transportation Safety Administration) 389
7.86.6.1 FMVSS 150: V2V NPRM (Notice of Proposed Rulemaking) for Light Vehicles 389
7.86.6.2 Heavy Vehicle V2V Research 389
7.86.6.3 DOT HS 812 333: Cybersecurity for Modern Vehicles 390
7.86.7 U.S. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) 390
7.86.7.1 V2I Deployment Guidance 390
7.86.7.2 CARMA (Cooperative Automation Research Mobility Applications) Platform 391
7.86.8 U.S. FMCSA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration) 391
7.86.8.1 V2X Applications for Commercial Vehicles 391
7.86.9 U.S. FTA (Federal Transit Administration) 391
7.86.9.1 V2X Applications for Public Transit Systems 392
7.87 VdTÜV (Association of Technical Inspection Agencies) 392
7.87.1 ITS-G5 Advocacy Efforts 392
7.88 VIIC (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium) 392
7.88.1 V2X-Related Policy Issues 392
7.89 W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) 393
7.89.1 Automotive Working Group 393
7.89.1.1 VISS (Vehicle Information Service Specification) 393
7.89.1.2 RSI (Restful Service Interface) 394
7.89.1.3 Previous Work 394
7.89.2 Automotive & Web Platform Business Group 394

8 Chapter 8: Future Roadmap & Value Chain 395
8.1 Future Roadmap 395
8.1.1 Pre-2020: Early Commitments by Automakers & Other Stakeholders 395
8.1.2 2020 – 2025: Mass-Market Adoption of V2X for Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency 396
8.1.3 2026 – 2030: Towards Connected Autonomous Driving & 5G-Based V2X Applications 397
8.2 Value Chain 398
8.2.1 V2X Hardware & Software Suppliers 398
8.2.2 Automotive OEMs 399
8.2.3 Aftermarket Manufacturers 399
8.2.4 System Integrators 399
8.2.5 Application Service Providers 400
8.2.6 Communications Service Providers 400
8.2.7 Road Users & Operators 400
8.2.8 Other Ecosystem Players 400

9 Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players 401
9.1 A1 Telekom Austria Group 401
9.2 AASA/01LightCom 402
9.3 ADI (Analog Devices Inc.) 403
9.4 Airbiquity 404
9.5 Airgain 405
9.6 Alibaba Group 406
9.7 Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics) 407
9.8 Amphenol Corporation 408
9.9 Anritsu Corporation 409
9.10 Apple 410
9.11 Applied Information 411
9.12 Aptiv (Delphi Automotive) 412
9.13 Aricent/Altran 413
9.14 ARM Holdings 414
9.15 Arteris IP 415
9.16 Aston Martin Lagonda 416
9.17 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) 417
9.18 AT&T 418
9.19 Athena Group 419
9.20 Audi 420
9.21 Autotalks 421
9.22 Aventi Intelligent Communication 422
9.23 BAIC Group/BJEV 423
9.24 Baidu 424
9.25 Battelle 425
9.26 BCE (Bell Canada) 426
9.27 BlackBerry/QNX Software Systems/Certicom 427
9.28 BMW Group 428
9.29 BMW Motorrad 429
9.30 Boréal Bikes 430
9.31 Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings) 431
9.32 Broadcom 432
9.33 Bureau Veritas/7Layers 433
9.34 BYD 434
9.35 CalAmp/LoJack 435
9.36 Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology) 436
9.37 CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology) 437
9.38 CETECOM 438
9.39 CEVA 439
9.40 Changan Automobile 440
9.41 Chemtronics 441
9.42 Chery 442
9.43 China Mobile/CMIoT (China Mobile IoT) 443
9.44 China Telecom 444
9.45 China Transinfo 445
9.46 China Unicom 446
9.47 Chunghwa Telecom 447
9.48 CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute) 448
9.49 Cisco Systems 449
9.50 Clarion 450
9.51 Cohda Wireless 451
9.52 Commsignia 452
9.53 Confidex 453
9.54 Connected Signals 454
9.55 Continental 455
9.56 Cubic Corporation 456
9.57 Cubic Telecom 457
9.58 Cybercom Group 458
9.59 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation 459
9.60 Daimler 460
9.61 Daimler Trucks 462
9.62 Danlaw 463
9.63 Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group/CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group) 464
9.64 DEKRA 465
9.65 Delphi Technologies 466
9.66 Denso Corporation 467
9.67 Derq 468
9.68 Desay SV Automotive 469
9.69 DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation) 470
9.70 DT (Deutsche Telekom) 471
9.71 DT&C 472
9.72 Ducati Motor Holding 473
9.73 Econolite 474
9.74 EFKON 475
9.75 Ericsson 476
9.76 ESCRYPT/ETAS 477
9.77 eSSys 479
9.78 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea) 480
9.79 Faraday Future 481
9.80 FAW Group 482
9.81 FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles) 483
9.82 Ferrari 484
9.83 FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications) 485
9.84 FEV Group 486
9.85 Ficosa 487
9.86 Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks) 488
9.87 Flex 489
9.88 FLIR Systems 490
9.89 Fluidmesh Networks 491
9.90 Ford Motor Company 492
9.91 Foresight Autonomous Holdings 493
9.92 Forward Electronics 494
9.93 Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems) 495
9.94 Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute) 496
9.95 Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits) 497
9.96 Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology) 498
9.97 Fujitsu 499
9.98 GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group) 500
9.99 Geely Holding/Geely Auto 501
9.100 Gemalto 502
9.101 Genvict 503
9.102 GM (General Motors) 504
9.103 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company 506
9.104 Gosuncn Technology Group 507
9.105 Great Wall Motor Company 508
9.106 Green Hills Software/ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services) 509
9.107 Griiip 511
9.108 Groupe PSA 512
9.109 Groupe Renault 513
9.110 HAAS Alert 514
9.111 Hancom MDS 515
9.112 Harada Industry 516
9.113 Helix Technologies 517
9.114 HELLA 518
9.115 HERE Technologies 519
9.116 Hino Motors 520
9.117 Hitachi 521
9.118 HKT/PCCW 522
9.119 HNTB Corporation 523
9.120 Honda Motor Corporation 524
9.121 HORIBA MIRA 525
9.122 HSAE/Hangsheng Technology 526
9.123 Huali/iSmartWays Technology 527
9.124 Huawei/HiSilicon 528
9.125 Hyundai Mobis 529
9.126 Hyundai Motor Group (Hyundai Motor Company/ Kia Motors Corporation) 530
9.127 IAV 531
9.128 IBM Corporation 532
9.129 IDnomic 533
9.130 Infineon Technologies 534
9.131 INRIX 535
9.132 Intel Corporation/Mobileye 536
9.133 InterDigital 538
9.134 Intertek 539
9.135 Invengo 540
9.136 Isuzu Motors 541
9.137 Iteris 542
9.138 ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan) 543
9.139 iTRONICS 544
9.140 ITT (IT Telecom) 545
9.141 Iveco/CNH Industrial 546
9.142 Jin Woo Industrial 547
9.143 JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)/Tata Motors 548
9.144 JRC (Japan Radio Company) 549
9.145 Juniper Networks 550
9.146 JVCKENWOOD Corporation 551
9.147 Kapsch TrafficCom 552
9.148 Karamba Security 553
9.149 Kawasaki Heavy Industries 554
9.150 KDDI Corporation 555
9.151 Keysight Technologies 556
9.152 KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal) 557
9.153 KPN 558
9.154 KT Corporation 559
9.155 KTM 560
9.156 Kymeta Corporation 561
9.157 Kyocera Corporation 562
9.158 LACROIX City/LACROIX Neavia 563
9.159 Lear Corporation 564
9.160 Leidos 565
9.161 Lenovo/Motorola Mobility 566
9.162 Leonardo 567
9.163 Lesswire/Prettl Group 568
9.164 LG Electronics/LG Innotek 569
9.165 LITE-ON Technology Corporation 570
9.166 LMT (Latvijas Mobilais Telefons) 571
9.167 Lucid Motors 572
9.168 Luxoft/Objective Software/DXC Technology 573
9.169 Lyft 574
9.170 Magna International 575
9.171 Magneti Marelli 576
9.172 Mando Corporation/Halla Group 577
9.173 Marben 578
9.174 Marvell 579
9.175 Mazda Motor Corporation 580
9.176 McLaren Automotive 581
9.177 Mediatek 582
9.178 MET Labs (MET Laboratories)/Eurofins Scientific 583
9.179 Michelin 584
9.180 Microchip Technology/Microsemi Corporation 585
9.181 Microsoft Corporation 586
9.182 MinebeaMitsumi Group 587
9.183 Mitsuba Corporation 588
9.184 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation 589
9.185 Mitsubishi Motors Corporation 590
9.186 Mobile Mark 591
9.187 Molex/Laird CVS (Connected Vehicle Solutions) 592
9.188 Murata Manufacturing 593
9.189 NavInfo 594
9.190 Navistar 595
9.191 Navya 596
9.192 Nebula Link 597
9.193 NEC Corporation 598
9.194 Neology/SMARTRAC 599
9.195 Neoway Technology 600
9.196 Neusoft Reach 601
9.197 NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden) 602
9.198 Nexar 603
9.199 Nexus Group 604
9.200 NI (National Instruments) 605
9.201 NIO 606
9.202 Nissan Motor Corporation 607
9.203 NJR (New Japan Radio) 608
9.204 Nokia 609
9.205 Nordsys 610
9.206 Noris Network 611
9.207 NTT DoCoMo 612
9.208 NXP Semiconductors 613
9.209 Oki Electric Industry 614
9.210 Oledcomm 615
9.211 OnBoard Security/Security Innovation 616
9.212 OPPO 617
9.213 Orange 618
9.214 P3 Group 619
9.215 PACCAR/DAF Trucks 620
9.216 Panasonic Corporation 621
9.217 Parsons Corporation 622
9.218 Peloton Technology 623
9.219 Penta Security Systems 624
9.220 Phantom Auto 625
9.221 Pioneer Corporation/ IPC (Increment P Corporation) 626
9.222 Proximus Group 627
9.223 Pulse Electronics 628
9.224 pureLiFi 629
9.225 Q-Free 630
9.226 Qianxun SI (Spatial Intelligence) 631
9.227 Qorvo 632
9.228 Qosmotec Software Solutions 633
9.229 Qualcomm 634
9.230 Quectel Wireless Solutions 635
9.231 RANIX 636
9.232 Redpine Signals 637
9.233 Renesas Electronics Corporation 638
9.234 Robert Bosch 639
9.235 Rohde & Schwarz 640
9.236 ROHM Semiconductor 641
9.237 RoyalTek 642
9.238 S.E.A. Datentechnik 643
9.239 SAIC Motor Corporation 644
9.240 Saleen Automotive 645
9.241 Samsung Electronics/HARMAN International 646
9.242 Sanjole 647
9.243 Sanyo Techno Solutions Tottori 648
9.244 Savari 649
9.245 SEAT 650
9.246 Sensefields 651
9.247 Sequans Communications 652
9.248 SGS 653
9.249 Shanghai Gotell Communication Technology Holdings (roam2free) 654
9.250 Siemens/Mentor/TASS International 655
9.251 Sierra Wireless 657
9.252 Sinclair Broadcast Group 658
9.253 SiriusXM/Automatic Labs 659
9.254 SK C&C 660
9.255 SK Telecom 661
9.256 Škoda Auto 662
9.257 Skyworks Solutions 663
9.258 Smart Mobile Labs 664
9.259 Smarteq Wireless/Allgon 665
9.260 Socionext 666
9.261 SoftBank Group 667
9.262 Spirent Communications 668
9.263 SsangYong Motor Company/Mahindra & Mahindra 669
9.264 STAR Systems International 670
9.265 STMicroelectronics 671
9.266 sTraffic 672
9.267 Subaru Corporation 673
9.268 Sumitomo Electric Industries 674
9.269 Sunsea AIoT/SIMCom Wireless Solutions/Longsung Technology 675
9.270 Suzuki Motor Corporation 676
9.271 Swarco/McCain 677
9.272 Synopsys 678
9.273 Taiwan Mobile 679
9.274 Taoglas 680
9.275 TAPCO (Traffic and Parking Control Company) 681
9.276 Tata AutoComp Systems 682
9.277 Tata Elxsi 683
9.278 TE Connectivity/Hirschmann Car Communication 684
9.279 Telefónica Group 685
9.280 Telenor Group/Telenor Connexion 686
9.281 Telit Communications 687
9.282 Telstra 688
9.283 Telus Corporation 689
9.284 Tencent 690
9.285 Terranet 691
9.286 Tesla 692
9.287 TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile) 693
9.288 Tome Software 694
9.289 TomTom 695
9.290 Toshiba Corporation 696
9.291 TowerJazz 697
9.292 Toyota Motor Corporation 698
9.293 TransCore 699
9.294 TRATON/Scania/MAN 700
9.295 Trek Bicycle Corporation 701
9.296 TTS (Traffic Technology Services) 702
9.297 TÜV Rheinland 703
9.298 TÜV SÜD 704
9.299 Uber Technologies 705
9.300 U-Blox 706
9.301 UL 707
9.302 Unex Technology Corporation 708
9.303 Unicore Communications/Beijing BDStar Navigation 709
9.304 Unisoc 710
9.305 Valens 711
9.306 Valeo 712
9.307 Vector Informatik 713
9.308 Veniam 714
9.309 Veoneer/Autoliv 715
9.310 Verizon Communications/Verizon Connect 716
9.311 Viavi Solutions 717
9.312 Vinli 718
9.313 Visteon Corporation 719
9.314 VLNComm 720
9.315 Vodafone Group 721
9.316 Volkswagen Group 722
9.317 Volvo Cars 723
9.318 Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks 724
9.319 VT iDirect 725
9.320 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland 726
9.321 Wanji Technology 727
9.322 Waymo/Alphabet/Google 728
9.323 Wayties 729
9.324 Wieson Technologies 730
9.325 WISeKey 731
9.326 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation) 732
9.327 WSP Global 733
9.328 Xiaomi Corporation 734
9.329 Xilinx 735
9.330 Yamaha Motor Company 736
9.331 YoGoKo 737
9.332 Yokowo 738
9.333 ZF 739
9.334 Zotye Auto (Zotye Automobile International) 740
9.335 ZTE 741

10 Chapter 10: Market Sizing & Forecasts 742
10.1 Global Outlook for V2X Communications Technology 742
10.2 Segmentation by Submarket 743
10.3 V2X Terminal Equipment 743
10.3.1 V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue 743
10.3.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 744
10.3.2.1 C-V2X 744
10.3.2.2 LTE-V2X 745
10.3.2.3 5G-NR V2X 745
10.3.2.4 IEEE 802.11p 746
10.3.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010 746
10.3.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV 747
10.4 V2X OBUs 747
10.4.1 V2X OBU Shipments & Revenue 747
10.4.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 748
10.4.2.1 C-V2X 749
10.4.2.2 LTE-V2X 750
10.4.2.3 5G-NR V2X 751
10.4.2.4 IEEE 802.11p 752
10.4.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010 753
10.4.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV 754
10.5 V2X RSUs 755
10.5.1 V2X RSU Shipments & Revenue 755
10.5.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 756
10.5.2.1 C-V2X 757
10.5.2.2 LTE-V2X 758
10.5.2.3 5G-NR V2X 759
10.5.2.4 IEEE 802.11p 760
10.5.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010 761
10.5.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV 762
10.6 V2X Applications 763
10.6.1 V2X Application Revenue 763
10.6.2 Segmentation by Application Category 764
10.6.2.1 Road Safety 765
10.6.2.2 Traffic Management & Optimization 765
10.6.2.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information 766
10.6.2.4 Transit & Public Transport 766
10.6.2.5 Commercial Vehicle Operations 767
10.6.2.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety 767
10.6.2.7 Environmental Sustainability 768
10.6.2.8 Road Weather Management 768
10.6.2.9 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application 769
10.6.2.10 Value-Added Services 769
10.7 V2X Backend Network Elements 770
10.7.1 V2X Backend Network Element Revenue 770
10.8 V2X Security 770
10.8.1 V2X Security Revenue 770
10.9 Global Installed Base of V2X-Equipped Vehicles & RSUs 771
10.9.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles 771
10.9.1.1 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 771
10.9.1.2 C-V2X 772
10.9.1.3 LTE-V2X 772
10.9.1.4 5G NR-V2X 773
10.9.1.5 IEEE 802.11p 773
10.9.1.6 IEEE 802.11p-2010 774
10.9.1.7 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV 774
10.9.2 V2X RSUs 775
10.9.2.1 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 775
10.9.2.2 C-V2X 776
10.9.2.3 LTE-V2X 776
10.9.2.4 5G-NR V2X 777
10.9.2.5 IEEE 802.11p 777
10.9.2.6 IEEE 802.11p-2010 778
10.9.2.7 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV 778
10.10 Regional Outlook 779
10.10.1 Submarkets 779
10.10.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment 779
10.10.1.2 V2X OBUs 780
10.10.1.3 V2X RSUs 781
10.10.1.4 V2X Applications 782
10.10.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements 782
10.10.1.6 V2X Security 783
10.10.2 Installed Base 783
10.10.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles 783
10.10.2.2 V2X RSUs 784
10.11 North America 785
10.11.1 Submarkets 785
10.11.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment 785
10.11.1.2 V2X OBUs 786
10.11.1.3 V2X RSUs 787
10.11.1.4 V2X Applications 788
10.11.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements 788
10.11.1.6 V2X Security 789
10.11.2 Installed Base 789
10.11.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles 789
10.11.2.2 V2X RSUs 790
10.12 Asia Pacific 791
10.12.1 Submarkets 791
10.12.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment 791
10.12.1.2 V2X OBUs 792
10.12.1.3 V2X RSUs 793
10.12.1.4 V2X Applications 794
10.12.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements 794
10.12.1.6 V2X Security 795
10.12.2 Installed Base 795
10.12.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles 795
10.12.2.2 V2X RSUs 796
10.13 Europe 797
10.13.1 Submarkets 797
10.13.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment 797
10.13.1.2 V2X OBUs 798
10.13.1.3 V2X RSUs 799
10.13.1.4 V2X Applications 800
10.13.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements 800
10.13.1.6 V2X Security 801
10.13.2 Installed Base 801
10.13.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles 801
10.13.2.2 V2X RSUs 802
10.14 Middle East & Africa 803
10.14.1 Submarkets 803
10.14.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment 803
10.14.1.2 V2X OBUs 804
10.14.1.3 V2X RSUs 805
10.14.1.4 V2X Applications 806
10.14.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements 806
10.14.1.6 V2X Security 807
10.14.2 Installed Base 807
10.14.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles 807
10.14.2.2 V2X RSUs 808
10.15 Latin & Central America 809
10.15.1 Submarkets 809
10.15.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment 809
10.15.1.2 V2X OBUs 810
10.15.1.3 V2X RSUs 811
10.15.1.4 V2X Applications 812
10.15.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements 812
10.15.1.6 V2X Security 813
10.15.2 Installed Base 813
10.15.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles 813
10.15.2.2 V2X RSUs 814

11 Chapter 11: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations 815
11.1 Why is the Market Poised to Grow? 815
11.2 Geographic Outlook: Which Countries Offer the Highest Growth Potential? 816
11.3 Review of V2X Engagements Worldwide 816
11.3.1 North America 816
11.3.1.1 United States 816
11.3.1.2 Canada 817
11.3.2 Asia Pacific 817
11.3.2.1 Japan 817
11.3.2.2 China 818
11.3.2.3 Rest of Asia Pacific 818
11.3.3 Europe 818
11.3.4 Middle East & Africa 819
11.3.5 Latin & Central America 819
11.4 Spectrum: Are There Any Feasible Choices Beyond 5.9 GHz? 819
11.5 Evaluating the Practical Benefits of V2X 820
11.6 The IEEE 802.11p/DSRC vs. C-V2X Debate: Which Technology will Succeed? 820
11.6.1 The Emergence of Two Opposing V2X Technology Camps 820
11.6.2 Is There a Clear Winner? 821
11.6.3 Flexible Approach: Different Technologies in Different Regions 821
11.7 IEEE 802.11bd: Is There a Future Evolution Path for 802.11p? 822
11.8 Can C-V2X Minimize the Cost of Roadside Infrastructure Build-Outs? 822
11.9 Which Applications Are Currently Supported by V2X-Equipped Production Vehicles? 823
11.10 Growing Focus on Motorcycle-Specific V2X Safety Applications 823
11.11 Use of V2V Communications to Support Truck Platooning Systems 824
11.12 Delivering V2X-Type Applications Through Wide-Area Cellular Connectivity 824
11.13 How Can V2X Facilitate Fully Autonomous Driving? 825
11.14 Addressing V2X Security Concerns 825
11.15 Strategic Recommendations 826
11.15.1 Automotive OEMs 826
11.15.2 V2X Technology & Solution Providers 827
11.15.3 Mobile Operators & Cellular Industry Specialists 827
11.15.4 Road Operators & Other Stakeholders 828

12 Chapter 12: Expert Opinion – Interview Transcripts 830
12.1 Cohda Wireless 830
12.2 Foresight Autonomous Holdings 833
12.3 Kapsch TrafficCom 838
12.4 Nokia 846
12.5 NXP Semiconductors 849
12.6 OnBoard Security 857
12.7 Qualcomm 860
12.8 Savari 864

List of Chart

Figure 1: The V2X Communications Concept 63
Figure 2: DSRC-Based V2X Architecture 76
Figure 3: C-V2X Architecture 79
Figure 4: Levels of Driving Automation for On-Road Vehicles 87
Figure 5: Technical & Performance Characteristics of V2X Technologies 99
Figure 6: PC5 & LTE/NR-Uu Interfaces for C-V2X 102
Figure 7: Examples of VLC (Visible Light Communications)-Based V2X Application Scenarios 104
Figure 8: Conceptual Architecture for End-to-End Network Slicing in Mobile Networks 112
Figure 9: Autonomous Vehicle Generated Data Volume by Sensor (%) 172
Figure 10: Key Elements of the AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed 178
Figure 11: CDOT (Colorado Department of Transport)-Panasonic V2X Deployment Program 183
Figure 12: Daimler's Car-to-X Communication System 188
Figure 13: HKT's C-V2X Trial Network Architecture 202
Figure 14: Key Elements of NTT DoCoMo's C-V2X Trial 216
Figure 15: V2V Applications Supported by Toyota's ITS Connect System in Japan 224
Figure 16: V2I Applications Supported by Toyota's ITS Connect System in Japan 225
Figure 17: TRATON's IEEE 802.11p-Based Truck Platooning System 240
Figure 18: C-V2X Evolution in 3GPP Releases 14, 15 & 16 271
Figure 19: CEPT Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications 297
Figure 20: ARC-IT/U.S. National ITS Reference Architecture Structure & Organization 388
Figure 21: Future Roadmap for V2X Communications: 2019 – 2030 395
Figure 22: V2X Communications Technology Value Chain 398
Figure 23: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 742
Figure 24: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Submarket: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 743
Figure 25: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 743
Figure 26: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 744
Figure 27: Global C-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 744
Figure 28: Global LTE-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 745
Figure 29: Global 5G NR-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 745
Figure 30: Global IEEE 802.11p Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 746
Figure 31: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 746
Figure 32: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 747
Figure 33: Global V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 747
Figure 34: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 748
Figure 35: Global V2X OBU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 748
Figure 36: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 749
Figure 37: Global C-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 749
Figure 38: Global C-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 750
Figure 39: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 750
Figure 40: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 751
Figure 41: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 751
Figure 42: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 752
Figure 43: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 752
Figure 44: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 753
Figure 45: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 753
Figure 46: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 754
Figure 47: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 754
Figure 48: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 755
Figure 49: Global V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 755
Figure 50: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 756
Figure 51: Global V2X RSU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 756
Figure 52: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 757
Figure 53: Global C-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 757
Figure 54: Global C-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 758
Figure 55: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 758
Figure 56: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 759
Figure 57: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 759
Figure 58: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 760
Figure 59: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 760
Figure 60: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 761
Figure 61: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 761
Figure 62: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 762
Figure 63: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 762
Figure 64: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 763
Figure 65: Global V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 763
Figure 66: Global V2X Application Revenue by Category: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 764
Figure 67: Global V2X-Based Road Safety Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 765
Figure 68: Global V2X-Based Traffic Management & Optimization Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 765
Figure 69: Global V2X-Based Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 766
Figure 70: Global V2X-Based Transit & Public Transport Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 766
Figure 71: Global V2X-Based Commercial Vehicle Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 767
Figure 72: Global V2X-Based Emergency Services & Public Safety Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 767
Figure 73: Global V2X-Based Environmental Sustainability Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 768
Figure 74: Global V2X-Based Road Weather Management Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 768
Figure 75: Global V2X-Based Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 769
Figure 76: Global V2X-Based Value-Added Services Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 769
Figure 77: Global V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 770
Figure 78: Global V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 770
Figure 79: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 771
Figure 80: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 771
Figure 81: Global C-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 772
Figure 82: Global LTE-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 772
Figure 83: Global 5G NR-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 773
Figure 84: Global IEEE 802.11p-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 773
Figure 85: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 774
Figure 86: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 774
Figure 87: Global V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 775
Figure 88: Global V2X RSU Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 775
Figure 89: Global C-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 776
Figure 90: Global LTE-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 776
Figure 91: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 777
Figure 92: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 777
Figure 93: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 778
Figure 94: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 778
Figure 95: V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 779
Figure 96: V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 779
Figure 97: V2X OBU Shipments by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 780
Figure 98: V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 780
Figure 99: V2X RSU Shipments by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 781
Figure 100: V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 781
Figure 101: V2X Application Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 782
Figure 102: V2X Backend Network Element Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 782
Figure 103: V2X Security Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 783
Figure 104: V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 783
Figure 105: V2X RSU Installed Base by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 784
Figure 106: North America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 785
Figure 107: North America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 785
Figure 108: North America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 786
Figure 109: North America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 786
Figure 110: North America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 787
Figure 111: North America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 787
Figure 112: North America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 788
Figure 113: North America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 788
Figure 114: North America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 789
Figure 115: North America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 789
Figure 116: North America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 790
Figure 117: Asia Pacific V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 791
Figure 118: Asia Pacific V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 791
Figure 119: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 792
Figure 120: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 792
Figure 121: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 793
Figure 122: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 793
Figure 123: Asia Pacific V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 794
Figure 124: Asia Pacific V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 794
Figure 125: Asia Pacific V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 795
Figure 126: Asia Pacific V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 795
Figure 127: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 796
Figure 128: Europe V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 797
Figure 129: Europe V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 797
Figure 130: Europe V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 798
Figure 131: Europe V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 798
Figure 132: Europe V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 799
Figure 133: Europe V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 799
Figure 134: Europe V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 800
Figure 135: Europe V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 800
Figure 136: Europe V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 801
Figure 137: Europe V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 801
Figure 138: Europe V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 802
Figure 139: Middle East & Africa V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 803
Figure 140: Middle East & Africa V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 803
Figure 141: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 804
Figure 142: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 804
Figure 143: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 805
Figure 144: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 805
Figure 145: Middle East & Africa V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 806
Figure 146: Middle East & Africa V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 806
Figure 147: Middle East & Africa V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 807
Figure 148: Middle East & Africa V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 807
Figure 149: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 808
Figure 150: Latin & Central America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 809
Figure 151: Latin & Central America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 809
Figure 152: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 810
Figure 153: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 810
Figure 154: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 811
Figure 155: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 811
Figure 156: Latin & Central America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 812
Figure 157: Latin & Central America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 812
Figure 158: Latin & Central America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 813
Figure 159: Latin & Central America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 813
Figure 160: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 814
Figure 161: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2022 (Thousands of Units) 815

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