The 5G Wireless Ecosystem: 2017 - 2030 - Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts

The 5G Wireless Ecosystem: 2017 - 2030 - Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts

  • SNS Telecom & IT
  • March 2017
  • ICT
  • 363 pages

Report Description

Despite the lack of sufficient LTE coverage in parts of the world, mobile operators and vendors have already embarked on R&D initiatives to develop 5G, the next evolution in mobile networks. 5G is expected to provide a single network environment to deliver not only existing mobile broadband and IoT services, but also new innovations such as self-driving cars, cloud robotics, 3D holographic telepresence and remote surgery with haptic feedback.

In fact, many mobile operators are betting on 5G to diversify their revenue streams, as conventional voice and data service ARPUs decline globally. For example, South Korea's KT has established a dedicated business unit for holograms, which it envisions to be a key source of revenue for its future 5G network.

At present, the 3GPP and other SDOs (Standards Development Organizations) are engaged in defining the first phase of 5G specifications. However, pre-standards 5G network rollouts are already underway, most notably in the United States and South Korea, as mobile operators rush to be the first to offer 5G services. SNS Research estimates that by the end of 2017, pre-standards 5G network investments are expected to account for over $250 Million.

Although 2020 has conventionally been regarded as the headline date for 5G commercialization, the very first standardized deployments of the technology are expected to be commercialized as early as 2019 with the 3GPP's initial 5G specifications set to be implementation-ready by March 2018. Between 2019 and 2025, we expect the 5G network infrastructure market to aggressively grow a CAGR of nearly 70%, eventually accounting for $28 Billion in annual spending by the end of 2025. These infrastructure investments will be complemented by annual shipments of up to 520 Million 5G-capable devices.

The “5G Wireless Ecosystem: 2017 – 2030 – Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the emerging 5G ecosystem including key market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, usage scenarios, vertical market applications, mobile operator deployment commitments, case studies, spectrum availability/allocation, standardization, research initiatives and vendor strategies. The report also presents forecasts for 5G investments and operator services.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report, as well as a 5G deployment tracking database covering over 60 global 5G trials, demos and commercial deployment commitments (as of Q1’2017)."

The report covers the following topics:

  • 5G NR (New Radio) and NextGen (Next Generation) system architecture
  • Market drivers and barriers to the adoption of 5G networks
  • 5G requirements, usage scenarios, vertical markets and applications
  • Key enabling technologies including air interface design, higher frequency radio access, advanced antenna systems, flexible duplex schemes, D2D (Device-to-Device) connectivity, dynamic spectrum access, self-backhauling and network slicing
  • Complementary concepts including NFV, SDN, hyperscale data centers, Cloud RAN, satellite communications and aerial networking platforms
  • Case studies and review of mobile operator 5G commitments
  • 5G standardization, development and research initiatives
  • Analysis of spectrum availability and allocation strategies for 5G networks
  • Competitive assessment of vendor strategies
  • Review of investments on R&D and pre-standards 5G networks
  • Standardized 5G infrastructure, user equipment and operator service forecasts till 2030

Forecast Segmentation

Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

5G R&D Investments

  • New Air Interface & Millimeter Wave Radio Access
  • MIMO, Beamforming & Advanced Antenna Technologies
  • Spectrum Sharing, Aggregation & Interference Management
  • Virtualization & Cloud RAN
  • Network Slicing & Other Technologies

Pre-Standards 5G Network Investments

  • Pre-Standards Base Stations
  • Pre-Standards User Equipment
  • Transport Networking & Other Investments

Standardized 5G Infrastructure Investments

  • 5G NR (New Radio)
    • Distributed Macrocell Base Stations
    • Small Cells
    • RRHs (Remote Radio Heads)
    • C-RAN BBUs (Baseband Units)
  • NextGen (Next Generation) Core Network
  • Fronthaul & Backhaul Networking

Standardized 5G User Equipment Investments

  • Handsets
  • Tablets
  • Embedded IoT Modules
  • USB Dongles
  • Routers

5G Operator Services

  • Subscriptions
  • Service Revenue

Regional Segmentation

  • Asia Pacific
  • Eastern Europe
  • Latin & Central America
  • Middle East & Africa
  • North America
  • Western Europe

The report provides answers to the following key questions:

  • How big is the opportunity for 5G network infrastructure, user equipment and operator services?
  • What trends, challenges and barriers will influence the development and adoption of 5G?
  • How will 5G drive the adoption of AR (Augmented Reality)/VR (Virtual Reality) applications such as 3D holographic telepresence and 360 degree streaming of live events?
  • How have advanced antenna and chip technologies made it possible to utilize millimeter wave spectrum for mobile communications in 5G networks?
  • How can non-orthogonal multiple access schemes such as RSMA (Resource Spread Multiple Access) enable 5G networks to support higher connection densities for Millions of IoT devices?
  • What will be the number of 5G subscriptions in 2019 and at what rate will it grow?
  • Which regions and countries will be the first to adopt 5G?
  • Which frequency bands are most likely to be utilized by 5G networks?
  • Who are the key 5G vendors and what are their strategies?
  • Will 5G networks rely on a disaggregated RAN architecture?
  • How will 5G impact the fiber industry?
  • Will satellite communications and aerial networking platforms play a wider role in 5G networks?

The report has the following key findings:

  • The Unites States and South Korea are spearheading early investments in pre-standards 5G trial networks, as mobile operators rush to be the first to offer 5G networks. SNS Research estimates that by the end of 2017, pre-standards 5G network investments are expected to account for over $250 Million.
  • Following completion of the 3GPP's first phase of 5G specifications in March 2018, SNS Research expects that early adopters across the globe will simultaneously begin commercializing  5G services in 2019.
  • Between 2019 and 2025, we expect the 5G network infrastructure market to aggressively grow a CAGR of nearly 70%, eventually accounting for $28 Billion in annual spending by the end of 2025.
  • Although early 5G R&D investments have primarily targeted the radio access segment, network-slicing has recently emerged as necessary ""end-to-end"" capability to guarantee performance for different 5G applications which may have contrasting requirements.
  • In order to support diverse usage scenarios, 5G networks are expected to utilize a variety of frequency bands ranging from established sub-6 GHz cellular bands to millimeter wave spectrum.

List of Companies Mentioned

  • 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
  • 5G Americas
  • 5G Forum, South Korea
  • 5G PPP (5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership)
  • 5G TSA (5G Open Trial Specification Alliance)
  • 5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
  • 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communications Promotion Forum, Japan)
  • 5GRUS
  • 5GTF (5G Technical Forum)
  • 5GTR (Turkish 5G Forum)
  • Alcatel-Lucent
  • Alpental Technologies
  • Alphabet
  • América Móvil
  • Anatel (Agencia Nacional de Telecomunicacoes)
  • Arcep
  • Argela
  • ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses)
  • Arqiva
  • Ascenta
  • AT&T
  • AT&T Mexico
  • Athena Wireless Communications
  • ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
  • Avanti Communications
  • AVC Networks Company
  • Batelco
  • Bell Canada
  • BMW Group
  • Broadband Forum
  • BT Group
  • C Spire
  • CableLabs
  • CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
  • CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
  • CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission)
  • CEA Tech
  • CEA-Leti
  • CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
  • China Mobile
  • China Telecom
  • China Unicom
  • Chunghwa Telecom
  • Cisco Systems
  • CITEL (Inter-American Telecommunication Commission)
  • Claro Brasil
  • CMHK (China Mobile Hong Kong)
  • CMRI (China Mobile Research Institute)
  • CNIT (Italian National Consortium for Telecommunications)
  • Cobham Wireless
  • Cohere Technologies
  • ComReg (Commission For Communications Regulation, Ireland)
  • CpqD (Center for Research and Development in Telecommunications, Brazil)
  • CTTC (Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya)
  • Datang Mobile
  • Datang Telecom Group
  • Dish Network
  • DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)
  • DT (Deutsche Telekom)
  • Du (Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company)
  • EE
  • Elisa
  • EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne)
  • Ericsson
  • Etisalat
  • ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research)
  • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
  • EURECOM
  • Eutelsat
  • Facebook
  • FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
  • FiberTower Corporation
  • FICORA (Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority)
  • Fraunhofer FOKUS
  • Fraunhofer HHI
  • Fraunhofer IIS
  • Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft
  • Fujitsu
  • FuTURE Mobile Communication Forum, China
  • GISFI (Global ICT Standardization Forum for India)
  • Globe Telecom
  • Google
  • GSA (Global mobile Suppliers Association)
  • GSMA
  • GTI
  • Hiroshima University
  • HPE
  • Huawei
  • Hughes Network Systems
  • i5GF (Indonesia 5G Forum)
  • ICASA (Independent Communications Authority of South Africa)
  • ICTA (Information and Communication Technologies Authority, Turkey)
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
  • IFT (Instituto Federal de Telecomunicaciones)
  • IIC (Industrial Internet Consortium)
  • IMDA (Info-communications Media Development Authority of Singapore)
  • IMDEA Networks Institute
  • IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group, China
  • Inatel (National Institute of Telecommunications, Brazil)
  • Industry Canada
  • Inmarsat
  • Intel Corporation
  • InterDigital
  • Istanbul University
  • ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute)
  • ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
  • JRC (Japan Radio Company)
  • Juniper Networks
  • KCL (King's College London)
  • KDDI Corporation
  • Keysight Technologies
  • KPN
  • KT Corporation
  • KUKA
  • Kumu Networks
  • LG Electronics
  • LG Uplus
  • Ligado Networks
  • Linux Foundation
  • M1
  • MACOM Technology Solutions
  • Malaysia 5G Committee
  • MCMC (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission)
  • MCTIC (Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications of Brazil)
  • MediaTek
  • MegaFon
  • METU (Middle East Technical University)
  • MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan)
  • Microsoft Corporation
  • MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China)
  • Mitsubishi Electric
  • Mobily
  • MOEA (Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan)
  • Moogsoft
  • MOST (Ministry of Science & Technology, China)
  • MOST (Ministry of Science & Technology, Taiwan)
  • MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, South Korea)
  • MTS (Mobile TeleSystems)
  • MTSFB (Malaysian Technical Standards Forum Bhd)
  • Murata Manufacturing
  • NBTC (National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission, Thailand)
  • NDRC (National Development and Reform Commission, China)
  • NEC Corporation
  • Net4Mobility
  • NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance
  • NI (National Instruments)
  • NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan)
  • Nokia
  • Nokia Networks
  • NTT Communications
  • NTT DoCoMo
  • NYU (New York University)
  • O3b
  • OCP (Open Compute Project) Foundation
  • OFCA (Office of the Communications Authority, Hong Kong)
  • Ofcom
  • OMA (Open Mobile Alliance)
  • ON.Lab (Open Networking Lab)
  • ONF (Open Networking Foundation)
  • Ooredoo
  • Optus
  • Orange
  • Panasonic Avionics Corporation
  • Panasonic Corporation
  • PLTD
  • Proximus
  • PTS (Swedish Post and Telecom Authority)
  • pureLiFi
  • Qorvo
  • Qualcomm
  • RF DSP
  • RF360 Holdings
  • Rogers Communications
  • Rohde & Schwarz
  • Roskomnadzor
  • Rutgers University
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Samsung Group
  • SES
  • SiBEAM
  • SIMalliance
  • SingTel
  • SK Telecom
  • Small Cell Forum
  • Smart Communications
  • SmarTone
  • SoftBank Group
  • Sonera
  • Sony Corporation
  • SpaceX (Space Exploration Technologies Corporation)
  • Sprint Corporation
  • StarHub
  • STC (Saudi Telecom Company)
  • Stromnetz Berlin
  • Swisscom
  • TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards)
  • Taiwan Mobile
  • Taiwan Star Telecom Corporation
  • TCG (Trusted Computing Group)
  • TDK Corporation
  • Tele2
  • Telecom Italia Group
  • Telefónica
  • Telenor
  • Telia Company
  • Telstra
  • Telus
  • Thales Group
  • TI (Texas Instruments)
  • TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
  • TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
  • Time Warner
  • Titan Aerospace
  • TM Forum
  • T-Mobile USA
  • Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • TRA (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, UAE)
  • TSDSI (Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India)
  • TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association of Korea)
  • TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
  • TU Dresden
  • Turkcell
  • U.S. Cellular
  • U.S. Department of Commerce
  • U.S. Department of Defense
  • U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
  • U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
  • U.S. NSF (National Science Foundation)
  • UN (United Nations)
  • University of California San Diego
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Kaiserslautern
  • University of Oulu
  • University of Southern California
  • University of Surrey
  • UT Austin (University of Texas at Austin)
  • UTS (University of Technology Sydney)
  • Verizon Communications
  • VimpelCom
  • Vodafone Australia
  • Vodafone Germany
  • Vodafone Group
  • Vodafone Hutchison Australia
  • Vodafone Qatar
  • Vodafone Turkey
  • VTT Technical Research Center
  • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
  • WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)
  • Wi-Fi Alliance
  • WinnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum)
  • WWRF (World Wireless Research Forum)
  • Xilinx
  • XO Communications
  • xRAN Consortium
  • Yonsei University
  • Zain Group
  • ZTE

Countires Covered

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua & Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Brunei
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China
  • Cocos Islands
  • Colombia
  • Comoros Islands
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Democratic Rep of Congo (ex-Zaire)
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • East Timor
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Faroe Islands
  • Federated States of Micronesia
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia (ex-Tahiti)
  • French West Indies
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guam
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea Republic
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kirghizstan
  • Kiribati
  • Korea
  • Kosovo
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macau
  • Macedonia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Caledonia
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • North Korea
  • Northern Marianas
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestine
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Réunion
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Rwanda
  • Samoa
  • Samoa (American)
  • Sao Tomé & Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • St Kitts & Nevis
  • St Lucia
  • St Vincent & The Grenadines
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks & Caicos Islands
  • UAE
  • Uganda
  • UK
  • Ukraine
  • Uruguay
  • US Virgin Islands
  • USA
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

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Table of Contents  

1 Chapter 1: Introduction 24
1.1 Executive Summary 24
1.2 Topics Covered 26
1.3 Forecast Segmentation 27
1.4 Key Questions Answered 29
1.5 Key Findings 30
1.6 Methodology 31
1.7 Target Audience 32
1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned 33

2 Chapter 2: The Evolving 5G Ecosystem 38
2.1 What is 5G? 38
2.2 High-Level Architecture of 5G Networks 38
2.2.1 5G NR (New Radio) Access Network 38
2.2.2 NextGen (Next Generation) Core Network 40
2.3 5G Performance Requirements 40
2.3.1 Data Volume 41
2.3.2 Data Rate 41
2.3.3 Bandwidth 41
2.3.4 Spectral Efficiency 42
2.3.5 Response Time & Latency 42
2.3.6 Connection Density 43
2.3.7 Reliability 43
2.3.8 Mobility 43
2.3.9 Availability & Coverage 44
2.3.10 Energy Efficiency 44
2.4 5G Market Drivers 44
2.4.1 Why the Need for a 5G Standard? 44
2.4.2 Improving Spectrum Utilization 45
2.4.3 Advances in Key Enabling Technologies 45
2.4.4 Gigabit Wireless Connectivity: Supporting Future Services 46
2.4.5 Extreme Device Densities with the IoT (Internet of Things) 46
2.4.6 Moving Towards a Flatter Network Architecture 46
2.4.7 Role of Vertical Sectors & the 4th Industrial Revolution 47
2.5 Challenges & Inhibitors to 5G 47
2.5.1 Standardization Challenges: Too Many Stakeholders 47
2.5.2 Spectrum Regulation & Complexities 48
2.5.3 Massive MIMO, Beamforming & Antenna Technology Issues 48
2.5.4 Higher Frequencies Mean New Infrastructure 48
2.5.5 Complex Performance Requirements 49
2.5.6 Energy Efficiency & Technology Scaling 49

3 Chapter 3: 5G Usage Scenarios, Applications & Vertical Markets 50
3.1 Usage Scenarios 50
3.1.1 eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband) 50
3.1.2 URLCC (Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications) 51
3.1.3 mMTC (Massive Machine-Type Communications) 51
3.2 Key Applications & Vertical Markets 52
3.2.1 Consumer & Multi-Sector Applications 52
3.2.1.1 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 52
3.2.1.2 TV & Media Delivery 54
3.2.1.3 3D Imaging & Holograms 55
3.2.1.4 Virtual Presence 55
3.2.1.5 AR (Augmented Reality) 56
3.2.1.6 VR (Augmented Reality) 57
3.2.1.7 Real-Time Gaming 57
3.2.1.8 Tactile Internet 58
3.2.1.9 Mobile Cloud Services 59
3.2.1.10 5G Enabled Robotics 59
3.2.1.11 Connected Drones 60
3.2.1.12 Smart & Connected Homes 60
3.2.1.13 Connectivity for Smart Wearables 61
3.2.1.14 Conventional Mobile Broadband & Other Applications 61
3.2.2 Healthcare 62
3.2.2.1 Telemedicine 62
3.2.2.2 Bio-Connectivity: Enabling Telecare 63
3.2.2.3 Remote Surgery & Other Applications 63
3.2.3 Automotive & Transportation 64
3.2.3.1 Connected Cars: Infotainment, Navigation & Other Services 64
3.2.3.2 C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications 65
3.2.3.3 Autonomous Driving 66
3.2.3.4 Intelligent Transportation 67
3.2.3.5 Connectivity for High-Speed Railway, Aerial & Maritime Environments 67
3.2.4 Public Safety & Critical Communications 68
3.2.4.1 MCPTT (Mission-Critical Push-to-Talk) 68
3.2.4.2 Off-Network Secure Communications 68
3.2.4.3 Situational Awareness 69
3.2.4.4 Disaster Relief & Other Applications 69
3.2.5 Industrial Automation 70
3.2.5.1 5G Enabled Smart Factories 70
3.2.5.2 Machine Vision 70
3.2.5.3 Extending the Factory Floor To the Cloud 71
3.2.5.4 Real-Time Assistance & Other Applications 71
3.2.6 Other Vertical Sector Applications 72
3.2.6.1 Agriculture 72
3.2.6.2 Asset Management & Logistics 72
3.2.6.3 Construction 73
3.2.6.4 Education 73
3.2.6.5 Energy, Utilities & Smart Grids 74
3.2.6.6 Fitness & Sports 74
3.2.6.7 Retail, Advertising & Vending 75
3.2.6.8 Smart Cities & Other Sectors 75

4 Chapter 4: Enabling Technologies for 5G 77
4.1 Key Technologies & Concepts 77
4.1.1 Flexible Air Interface Design 77
4.1.1.1 Frame Structure 77
4.1.1.2 Multiple Numerologies 78
4.1.1.3 Other Aspects 79
4.1.2 5G Waveform Candidates 79
4.1.2.1 CP-OFDM (OFDM with Cyclic Prefix) 79
4.1.2.2 CP-OFDM with WOLA (Weighted Overlap and Add) 80
4.1.2.3 FCP-OFDM (Flexible CP-OFDM) 80
4.1.2.4 F-OFDM (Filtered OFDM) 80
4.1.2.5 BF-OFDM (Block Filtered OFDM) 81
4.1.2.6 FBMC (Filter Bank Multi-Carrier)/FB-OFDM (Filter Bank OFDM) 81
4.1.2.7 UFMC (Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier)/UF-OFDM (Universal Filtered OFDM) 82
4.1.2.8 GFDM (Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing) 82
4.1.2.9 SC-FDM (Single Carrier FDM)/DFT-S OFDM (Discrete Fourier Transform-Spread OFDM) 82
4.1.2.10 Zero-Tail SC-FDM/DFT-S OFDM 83
4.1.2.11 SC-FDE (Single-Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization) 83
4.1.2.12 Other Options 83
4.1.3 Modulation Schemes 84
4.1.3.1 Initial Baseline for 5G NR 84
4.1.3.2 Going Beyond 256-QAM: Higher Order Modulations 85
4.1.3.3 Other Advanced Modulation Schemes 85
4.1.4 Multiple Access Schemes 87
4.1.4.1 OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) 87
4.1.4.2 SC-FDMA (Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) 87
4.1.4.3 SDMA (Spatial Division Multiple Access) 87
4.1.4.4 Power Domain NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) 88
4.1.4.5 Code Domain Techniques 88
4.1.4.5.1 MUSA (Multi-User Shared Access) 88
4.1.4.5.2 RSMA (Resource Spread Multiple Access) 89
4.1.4.5.3 LSSA (Low Code Rate and Signature Based Shared Access) 89
4.1.4.5.4 NOCA (Non-Orthogonal Coded Access) 90
4.1.4.5.5 NCMA (Non-Orthogonal Coded Multiple Access) 90
4.1.4.5.6 GOCA (Group Orthogonal Coded Access) 91
4.1.4.6 Hybrid-Domain & Interleaver-Based Techniques 91
4.1.4.6.1 SCMA (Spare Code Multiple Access) 91
4.1.4.6.2 PDMA (Pattern Division Multiple Access) 91
4.1.4.6.3 IDMA (Interleaver Division Multiple Access) 92
4.1.4.6.4 IGMA (Interleave-Grid Multiple Access) 92
4.1.4.6.5 RDMA (Repetition Division Multiple Access) 92
4.1.4.7 Other Methods 93
4.1.5 Channel Coding Schemes 94
4.1.5.1 LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) Coding 94
4.1.5.2 Polar Coding 94
4.1.6 Duplex Schemes 95
4.1.6.1 Dynamic TDD for Higher Frequencies 95
4.1.6.2 FDD and FDP (Flexible Duplexing on Paired Spectrum) 95
4.1.6.3 Full Duplex 96
4.1.7 Centimeter & Millimeter Wave Radio Access 97
4.1.8 Advanced Antenna Technologies 98
4.1.8.1 Massive MIMO & MU-MIMO 98
4.1.8.2 Phased Array Antennas 99
4.1.8.3 Beamforming & Beam Tracking 100
4.1.9 D2D (Device-to-Device) Connectivity & Communication 101
4.1.10 Self-Backhauling & Mesh Networking 102
4.1.11 Spectrum Sharing & Aggregation 103
4.1.11.1 Complex Carrier Aggregation Schemes 103
4.1.11.2 LSA (Licensed Shared Access): Two-Tiered Sharing 103
4.1.11.3 SAS (Spectrum Access System): Three-Tiered Sharing 104
4.1.11.4 LAA (License Assisted Access): Licensed & Unlicensed Spectrum Aggregation 106
4.1.11.5 New Mechanisms for 60 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing 107
4.1.11.6 MulteFire 107
4.1.11.7 Cognitive Radio & Spectrum Sensing 108
4.1.12 Multi-Site & Multi-RAN Connectivity 108
4.1.12.1 Dual-Connectivity with LTE 108
4.1.12.2 Interoperability with Wi-Fi & Other Networks 108
4.1.12.3 Multi-Site Connectivity & User Centric Cell Access 108
4.1.13 Control and User Plane Separation 109
4.1.14 Network Slicing 110
4.1.14.1 RAN Slicing 111
4.1.14.2 Core Network Slicing 111
4.1.14.3 End-to-End Network Slicing 112
4.1.15 Service Based Architecture 113
4.1.16 Network Security & Privacy Enhancements 114
4.2 Complementary Technologies 115
4.2.1 NFV & SDN 115
4.2.2 Cloud Computing & Hyperscale Data Centers 117
4.2.3 DevOps & Other IT Concepts 117
4.2.4 Big Data & Analytics 118
4.2.5 UDNs (Ultra Dense Networks) & HetNets 118
4.2.6 RAN Centralization & Functional Splitting 119
4.2.6.1 C-RAN (Centralized RAN) 119
4.2.6.2 RAN Functional Split Options 121
4.2.7 Cloud RAN 123
4.2.8 MEC (Multi-Access Edge Computing) 124
4.2.9 Wireline Fiber Infrastructure 125
4.2.9.1 Impact of 5G Rollouts on the Fiber Industry 125
4.2.9.2 Delivering Tbps Data Rates 125
4.2.9.3 Current Investment Trends 125
4.2.9.4 Role of Other Wireline Technologies 126
4.2.10 VLC (Visible Light Communication) & Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) 126
4.2.11 Satellites, Drones & Balloons 127
4.2.11.1 Satellite Integration for 5G Access & Transport Networking 127
4.2.11.2 Low-Earth Orbit Satellites for Gigabit Speeds: Existing Investments 128
4.2.11.3 Drones & Balloons for Coverage Extension 128
4.2.11.4 Interest from Mobile Operators 129

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