Refinery Catalysts:  Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2017-2023

Refinery Catalysts: Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2017-2023

  • Winter Green Research
  • April 2017
  • Materials
  • 818 pages

Report Description

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The study addresses hydroprocessing catalysts and FCC catalysts. Hydroprocessing catalysts are used to create cleaner fuels--especially ULSD. Demand for cleaner fuels is driving the market. Refining catalysts are experiencing strong growth. New fuel standards are coupled with refineries increasing use of heavier and dirtier feedstocks and major additions to refining capacity.

The refinery catalyst market is thus boosted by the fact that the efficient use of catalysts can help the manufacturers' better address the increasing energy demand. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the conversion process used in petroleum refineries. It is widely used to convert the high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils to more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases and other products.

Cracking of petroleum hydrocarbons is done by catalytic cracking because it produces more gasoline with a higher-octane rating. Byproduct gases are more olefinic. These are more valuable than those produced by thermal cracking.

The feedstock to an FCC is that portion of the crude oil that has an initial boiling point of 340 °C or higher at atmospheric pressure. The average molecular weight ranges from about 200 to 600 or higher. This portion of crude oil is often referred to as heavy gas oil. The FCC process vaporizes and breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boiling hydrocarbon liquids into much shorter molecules by contacting the feedstock, at high temperature and moderate pressure, with a fluidized powdered catalyst.

Hydroprocessing faces significant challenges as crude feeds get heavier; there will be more sulphur and nitrogen to extract; more aromatics to saturate; more metals to remove; and more coke to deal with. Refiners have ageing facilities, which may not be designed and optimized to meet new challenges. As more capital investment is needed, costs for refining fossil fuels will rise, stimulating markets for renewable energy, making them more competitive with fossil fuels.

The cost of hydrocracking catalysts varies because of composition differences. The catalysts can be alumina with base metals or contain added crystalline zeolites. High quality ultra-stable type Y molecular sieve zeolites are used in this service. Nickel-moly or nickel-tungsten are the active metals frequently used.

FCC additives are used with catalysts to meet specific unit objectives. Higher gasoline octane, lower gasoline sulfur, lower sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides emissions, lower carbon monoxide levels, improve fluidization, make more propylene and/or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and improve bottoms cracking are FCC objectives.

“Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) petroleum refining products overcome limiting factors affecting refinery capacity and operating flexibility to deliver value and performance. Catalysts are a crucial component in the processing of highly valued petrochemicals, gasoline, diesel and other fuels.”

The market for refinery catalysts in the oil refining sector at $4,967 million in 2016 is expected to be worth $6,490 million by 2023, growing at 3.8% on average between 2017 and 2023. There are 500 FCC units being operated globally, each of which requires a constant supply of FCC catalysts. There are 3,000 HPC units being operated globally, or a capacity of approximately 44 million barrels per day, each of which typically requires replacement HPC catalysts once every one to four years.

Companies Profiled

Market Leaders

  • Albemarle
  • BASF
  • Haldor Topsoe
  • Honeywell / UOP
  • Advanced Refining Technologies (ART)
  • WR Grace
  • Clariant AG / Süd-Chemie AG
  • Shell CRI
  • IFP Energies nouvelles Group Company / Axens
  • Sinopec China Petrochemical Corporation
  • Shell / Criterion

Market Participants

  • Air Products
  • Advanced Energy Materials LLC
  • Chevron
  • Clean Diesel Technologies
  • Clean Diesel Technologies / Catalytic Solutions
  • Dow
  • Evonik Industries
  • ExxonMobil Catalysts and Licensing LLC,
  • Headwaters Technology Innovation (HTI)
  • IFP Energies Nouvelles Group Company / Axens / Eurecat UNICAT Catalyst Technologies
  • Indian Oil Corporation
  • Johnson Matthey
  • KBR Hydroprocessing
  • Nanostellar
  • Petrobras Partnership with Albemarle
  • Quantiam Technologies Inc.
  • Rive Technology and Grace Davison
  • Shell
  • Shell / Sekiyu
  • Shoaibi Group / General Technology & Systems Company Ltd (GENTAS)
  • UNICAT Catalyst Technologies
  • Zeochem
  • Zeolyst
  • Selected Refinery Catalyst Companies
  • Emerging Catalyst Companies
  • FCC Catalyst & Additive Suppliers
  • Government Agencies and Other Organizations

Key Topics

  • Catalysts
  • Petroleum Process
  • Chemical Process
  • Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Catalysts
  • Hydroprocessing Catalysts
  • Metal Refinery Catalys
  • Nanotechnology
  • Related Energy
  • Depleting Crude Oil Reserves
  • Process Catalysts
  • Refining Catalysts
  • Refining Industry
  • Refining Capacity
  • Maximizing Diesel Production
  • Hydrocracking
  • Hydrotreating
  • Hydrotreating Process
  • Distillate Hydrotreating
  • Lithium Carbonate
  • Lithium Chemicals
  • Lithium Market Opportunity
  • Rare Earth Minerals

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Table of Contents

Refinery Catalysts Executive Summary 41
Refinery Catalysts Market Driving Forces 41
Change Is the Only Constant 43
Shift In Refiners' Raw Material Consumption Toward Heavier Feedstocks 45
Lower Sulfur Specifications Worldwide 46
Refinery Catalysts Market Shares 46
Refinery Catalysts Market Forecast 2016 49

1. Refinery Catalysts Market Description And Market Dynamics 51
1.1 Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Catalysts And Hydroprocessing Catalysts 51
1.1.1 Reducing Emissions From Diesel Engines 53
1.1.2 On-Road Vehicles Emission Of Nitrogen Oxide 54
1.1.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) 54
1.2 Identifying Trends In The Refining Catalyst Market 55
1.2.1 Depleting Crude Oil Reserves 57
1.2.2 Catalysts Have To Be Protected From Particulates And Foulants 57
1.2.3 Conversion Rates 58
1.2.4 Catalyst Platforms Customized Solution For Each Specific Refinery Or Unit Operation 59
1.2.5 Residue Upgrading Challenge 59
1.3 Process Catalysts 59
1.4 Refining Catalysts 60
1.4.1 Refining Catalyst Economic Trends: Btu Growth In Energy Consumption 60
1.4.2 Refining Catalyst Business Trends 60
1.4.3 Refining Catalyst Business: Transformation From Regional To Global Undertaking, Leveraging Economies Of Scale 61
1.4.4 Increased Manufacturing Costs 61
1.4.5 Catalyst Customization 61
1.5 Market Changes Impacting Refineries 63
1.5.1 Refinery Catalysts 63
1.6 Refinery Catalysts: Suppliers Tap Emerging Markets 65
1.6.1 Refining Industry 66
1.7 Global Refining Industry Additions 67
1.7.1 Sinopec Boosts Refining Capacity To 232 Mln Tons 68
1.8 Oil Refineries 69
1.8.1 Economic Environment Of Constrained Refinery Capex 69
1.9 Diesel 70
1.9.1 Maximizing Diesel Production Through Integrated Hydroprocessing 70
1.10 Hydrotreating 72
1.10.1 Hydrotreating Process Description 74
1.10.2 Typical Causes Of Deactivation Of Hydroprocessing Catalysts 74
1.10.3 Typical Methods Of Performance Recovery and Regeneration Of Hydroprocessing Catalysts 75
1.10.4 Hydrotreating Catalysts 76
1.10.5 Hydrocracking 77
1.11 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) 78
1.12 Reforming 79
1.13 Refinery Costs and Supply 80
1.14 Fuel Consumption In Transportation 81
1.14.1 Changing Trends 82
1.14.2 Rising Consumption Of Petroleum Based Derivatives 83
1.14.3 Demand For Maintaining High Octane Number 83
1.14.4 Catalytic Hydrotreating 86
1.15 Natural Gas Energy Market Growth 89

2. Refinery Catalysts Market Shares And Forecasts 91
2.1 Refinery Catalysts Market Driving Forces 91
2.1.1 Change Is the Only Constant 93
2.1.2 Shift In Refiners' Raw Material Consumption Toward Heavier Feedstocks 95
2.1.3 Lower Sulfur Specifications Worldwide 96
2.2 Refinery Catalysts Market Shares 96
2.2.1 Shell CRI-Criterion Hydrocracking Catalysts 100
2.2.2 Grace 100
2.2.3 Chevron and Grace Formed Advanced Refining Technologies (ART), 101
2.2.4 Albemarle Addresses Demand For Refinery Catalysts 102
2.2.5 Catalysts and Licensing LLC, ExxonMobil 102
2.2.6 Criterion 103
2.2.7 Criterion NAPHTHA 104
2.2.8 ExxonMobil Corporation 105
2.2.9 BASF 105
2.2.10 BASF FCC Refining Catalysts 105
2.2.11 Haldor Topsoe 106
2.2.12 Johnson Matthey 106
2.2.13 SINOPEC Catalyst Company 106
2.2.14 UNICAT Catalyst Technologies, Inc. 107
2.3 Refinery Catalysts Market Forecast 2016 107
2.3.1 Albemarle REACT™ has been successfully used to reactivate 115
2.4 Refinery Catalyst Molybdenum and Momentum 115
2.5 Hydroprocessing Refinery Catalysts 126
2.5.1 Hydrocracking Catalysts 128
2.5.2 Hydrodesulphurization Catalyst 129
2.5.3 Production of Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel ULSD to Meet Global Diesel Needs 129
2.5.4 Hydrocracking Integration 131
2.5.5 Hydrocracking Meeting Refining Challenges 131
2.5.6 Hydrotreating 131
2.6 Hydroprocessing Refinery Catalyst Market Shares 132
2.6.1 Albemarle Hydroprocessing Catalyst Area 135
2.6.2 Albemarle Addressing Is The Need For More Hydroprocessing Capacity 135
2.6.3 Haldor Topsoe 136
2.6.4 Topsoe Reforming 137
2.6.5 Shell / Criterion 137
2.6.6 Shell CRI Catalyst Company Part of CRI/Criterion Inc., Ethylene Oxide 139
2.6.7 Shell Group Criterion Catalysts & Technologies (Houston) 139
2.6.8 ART 140
2.6.9 Chevron/Grace Venture, ART 142
2.6.10 Axens’ Hydrocracking Technologies 142
2.6.11 Axens Diesel Hydrotreating 142
2.6.12 Honeywell UOP 143
2.6.13 Zeolyst 144
2.6.14 Clariant / Süd-Chemie 144
2.6.15 UOP the CANMET 145
2.6.16 Hydroprocessing Catalyst Market Forecasts 145
2.6.17 Hydroprocessing Catalyst Market Forecasts 148
2.6.18 Customization of Hydroprocessing Catalysts 150
2.6.19 Hydroprocessing Refinery Facility 152
2.6.20 Distillate Hydrotreating Business 152
2.6.21 Hydroprocessing Is A Technology-Driven Market 153
2.7 Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Refinery Catalysts 153
2.7.1 FCC 155
2.7.2 FCC Refinery Catalyst Market Shares 155
2.7.3 BASF 158
2.7.4 W.R. Grace 158
2.7.5 Albemarle 159
2.7.6 Albemarle AFX 159
2.7.7 FCC Refinery Catalyst Market Forecasts 160
2.7.8 Crude Oil Refining Process 161
2.8 Reforming Refinery Catalysts 162
2.8.1 Stability Of Reforming Catalysts 162
2.8.2 Reforming Refinery Catalyst Market Shares 162
2.8.3 Honeywell UOP 165
2.8.4 Axens / Criterion Reforming Catalysts 166
2.8.5 Haldor Topsoe Reforming Catalysts 167
2.8.6 Johnson Matthey Catalysts Pre-Reforming 168
2.8.7 Reforming Refinery Catalyst Market Forecasts 168
2.9 Chemical Synthesis, Petroleum Refining And Polymerization Catalysts 170
2.9.1 Refining Catalyst Business Transformed From A Regional Business To A Global Undertaking 172
2.9.2 Catalyst Supplier Adaptation to Refining Business 172
2.10 Refinery and Refinery Catalyst Industry Mergers and Acquisitions 173
2.10.1 PBF Energy Completes Acquisition of the Torrance Refinery and Related Logistics Assets 173
2.10.2 Refinery Catalyst Industry Consolidation 174
2.10.3 Axens North America 174
2.10.4 BASF 174
2.10.5 Grace & Co. Acquires The Assets of BASF's Polyolefin Catalysts business. 175
2.10.6 Johnson Matthey 175
2.10.7 DuPont Acquired MECS 175
2.11 Refining, Re-Refining, and Biofuel Catalysts 176
2.12 FCC Crude Oil Refinery Catalysts for Refinement 178
2.13 Re-Refining Of Used Motor Oil: 185
Re-Refining Processes Have Had Serious Difficulties 189
2.14 Biofuel and Biochemicals 192
2.15 International Oil Companies (IOCs) Disposing Of Downstream Refinery Assets 197
2.15.1 Refinery Capacity 197
2.15.2 Non-OECD Capacities 198
2.16 World Consumption of Energy 199
2.16.1 Per Capita Energy Consumption 200
2.16.2 Refining Catalyst Producers Innovation Drivers 200
2.16.3 Worldwide Crude Oil Prices. 200
2.16.4 BASF Expects Long-Term Global Fuel Demand To Show A Strong Preference For Diesel Over Gasoline 203
2.16.5 Globalization & Consolidation 203
2.16.6 Alternative Fuels 203
2.16.7 Biofuels 204
2.17 Lithium 204
2.17.1 Albemarle Has Successfully Produced Lithium Carbonate 204
2.17.2 Albemarle Discovery in Lithium Carbonate Production 207
2.17.3 Market For Lithium Chemicals 207
2.18 Global Refinery Catalyst Market, By Metals Products 207
2.18.1 Refinery Operations Rive Technology and Grace Davison in Partnership 208
2.18.2 Zeolite In-Demand Material 211
2.18.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalyst 212
2.19 Prices for Refining Catalysts 213
2.19.1 Hydrotreating Catalysts Prices 246
2.19.2 Albemarle Increases Prices Of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalysts 246
2.19.3 Rare Earth Element Impact on Catalyst Pricing 247
2.20 Refinery Catalyst Regional Analysis 247
2.20.1 Refinery Catalyst Market Forecasts by Region 251
2.20.2 United States 252
2.20.3 OPEC 252
2.20.4 North America 253
2.20.5 EMEA 253
2.20.6 China 254
2.20.7 China Monitors Refining Capacity 255
2.20.8 Refining in China 255
2.20.9 Oil Refining Trends In South Korea – 256
2.20.10 Brazil 257
2.20.11 Developing Markets 257
2.20.12 Company Regional Participation in Refinery Catalyst Markets 259
2.20.13 Haldor Topsoe Strengthens Wet-Gas Sulphuric Acid Units (WSA) Activities in China 263
2.20.14 Regional Analysis For All Types Of Chemical Catalysts 263
2.20.15 Worldwide Heterogeneous Catalyst Refining Business 264

3. Refinery Catalysts Product Description 266
3.1 Overview Oil Refinery Catalysts 266
3.1.1 Hydro Processing Catalysts (HPC ) 273
3.2 Albemarle Refining Solutions 273
3.2.1 Albemarle Chemical Catalysts 274
3.2.2 Albemarle Total Catalyst Management 275
3.2.3 Albemarle Hydro Processing Catalysts (HPC) Positioning 276
3.2.4 Albemarle Hydro Processing Catalysts (HPC ) 276
3.2.5 Albemarle Hydroprocessing Catalysts (HPC ) 277
3.2.6 Albemarle Pretreat Catalysts Impact on Hydrocracking Catalyst 278
3.2.7 Albemarle Diesel Hydrotreating Catalysts 279
3.2.8 Albemarle’s STARS Technology 280
3.2.9 Albemarle STARS Catalysts Joint Venture Partner Nippon Keene Co 281
3.2.10 Albemarle STARS Catalyst Multiple Reactivations 282
3.2.11 Albemarle STARS Catalysts 282
3.2.12 Albemarle STA X™ Technology 283
3.2.13 Albemarle Refinery Catalyst Development Related To Hydroprocessing Of Vegetable Oils 284
3.2.14 Albemarle / Neste Oil Production Of Renewable Diesel: Neste Oil NExBTL® Technology Scales 286
3.2.15 Albemarle Direct Desulfurization Catalyst Resolves Problem for Neste Solvent Production 290
3.2.16 Albemarle High-Performance Low Rare Earth Technology: Rare Earth Market 291
3.2.17 Albemarle's Low Rare Earth Technology (LRT(TM)) Catalysts Offer Increasing Value as Rare Earth Mineral Prices Continue to Soar. 291
3.2.18 Selected Albemarle Catalysts 292
3.2.19 Albemarle NEBULA 20 295
3.2.20 Albemarle Hydroconversion 296
3.2.21 Albemarle KC 2610 296
3.2.22 Albemarle Grading & Guard Catalysts 296
3.2.23 Albemarle Isomerization 298
3.2.24 Albemarle / Axens, ATIS-2L and ATIS-1L 299
3.2.25 Catalyst ROI from Albemarle 299
3.2.26 Albemarle and Petrobras World-Scale Hydroprocessing Catalysts Production Plant 299
3.2.27 Albemarle REACTTM 300
3.2.28 Albemarle Services Commercial Technology Services 301
3.2.29 Albemarle Process Technology 302
3.2.30 UOP and Albemarle Hydroprocessing Alliance 303
3.2.31 Albemarle Alkylation 306
3.2.32 Albemarle Catalysts, CBI Lummus and Neste Oil Solid Acid Catalyst Gasoline Alkylation Technology, AlkyClean 306
3.2.33 Albemarle Biofuels Catalysts 307
3.2.34 Albemarle Unlocking The Potential Of Biomass Through High-Performance, Heterogeneous Catalysts309
3.2.35 Albemarle Corporation Acquires Catilin In Biofuels Market 309
3.2.36 Albemarle Grading & Guard Catalysts 310
3.2.37 Albemarle Cost Effective Catalysts For Paraffin Isomerization 310
3.2.38 Albemarle Specialty Zeolites 310
3.2.39 Albemarle Other Catalysts 311
3.3 Haldor Topsoe Hydroprocessing Worldwide 312
3.3.1 Haldor Topsoe TK-449 SiliconTrap™ 313
3.3.2 Haldor Topsoe TK-747 HyOctane 314
3.3.3 Haldor Topsoe TK-611 HyBRIM 315
3.3.4 Haldor Topsoe TK-578 BRIM 316
3.3.5 Haldor Topsoe Refining Solutions 316
3.3.6 Haldor Topsoe BRIM™ Catalysts 317
3.3.7 Topsoe Catalysis Hydroprocessing 318
3.3.8 Topsoe Hydro Processing Design Facilities 318
3.3.9 Haldor Topsoe Catalyst Varieties 319
3.3.10 Haldor Topsoe Researching Catalysis 319
3.3.11 Haldor Topsoe BRIM™ Catalysts 320
3.3.12 Topsoe Meeting Sulphur Specification Standards 335
3.3.13 Topsoe Catalytic Reaction Sites 335
3.3.14 Topsoe Molybdenum Disulphide Nanocrystals 336
3.4 Chevron and Grace / ART Hydrotreating Catalysts 336
3.4.1 Grace ART Hydroprocessing Catalysts 336
3.4.2 Grace Advanced Refining Technologies 339
3.4.3 ART Ebullated Bed Resid Hydrocracking Line 341
3.4.4 Chevron All Hydroprocessing 341
3.5 Advanced Energy Materials 343
3.5.1 Advanced Energy Material’s Carbon Capture Adsorbents 344
3.5.2 Advanced Energy Materials Lithium-ion Batteries 345
3.6 Axens Hydrocracking 349
3.6.1 Axens Hydrocracking Licensing 349
3.6.2 Axens Mild Hydrocracking and HyC-10 353
3.6.3 Axens Two-Stage Hydrocracking 354
3.6.4 Axens Once-Through HyK Hydrocracker 356
3.6.5 Axens Amorphous-Type Hydrocracking Catalyst HDK 776 356
3.6.6 Axens Hydrocracking Reactor Performance 357
3.6.7 Axens’ Hydrocracking Technologies 358
3.6.8 Axens HR Series Catalysts with ACE™ Technology 358
3.6.9 Axens Hydrocracking Licensing 359
3.6.10 Axens Recommended Hydrocracking Process 361
3.6.11 Axens Mild Hydrocracking and HyC-10 363
3.7 Shell CRI Hydrotreating Catalysts 364
3.7.1 Shell Group / CRI / Criterion Inc 365
3.7.2 Shell Criterion Catalysts Services 365
3.7.3 Shell CRI-Criterion actiCat Services 367
3.7.4 Shell CRI-Criterion ENCORE Revitalisation 368
3.7.5 Criterion Custom Catalysts 369
3.7.6 Shell CRI-Criterion Catalysts Analytical Systems 372
3.7.7 Criterion Denox – SCR Catalyst 373
3.7.8 Criterion Dioxin Destruction 376
3.7.9 Criterion VOC Catalyst & CO Catalyst 377
3.7.10 Criterion CO2 Polishing Catalyst 378
3.7.11 Criterion Tertiary N2O Abatement 378
3.7.12 Criterion Zeolyst Specialties 380
3.7.13 Criterion Hydrocracking 381
3.7.14 Criterion Distillate Hydrotreating 383
3.7.15 Criterion NAPHTHA 385
3.7.16 Criterion Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel ULSD 394
3.7.17 Criterion Distillate Hydrotreating 396
3.7.18 Criterion Distillate Hydrotreating 397
3.7.19 Criterion Next Generation Zeolite Nano Scale Technology And Nano Engineering At Production Levels 400
3.7.20 Criterion CRI Offers Catalysts For The Full Hydrogenation Of Benzene To Cyclohexane 404
3.7.21 Criterion's Distillate Hydrotreating Application 404
3.7.22 Criterion’s ASCENT Catalyst Technology 405
3.7.23 Criterion CENTINEL™ Technology 405
3.7.24 Criterion SYNCats™ Specialized Catalysts For Distillate Upgrading 406
3.7.25 Criterion FCC 408
3.8 Johnson Matthey HYTREAT 410
3.9 BASF Hydrogenation 411
3.9.1 BASF’s Catalysts Division 412
3.9.2 BASF Copper-Chrome Catalysts for Hydrogenation Processes 413
3.10 Axens Renewable Oils & Fats Hydroprocessing 415
3.10.1 Axens and GENTAS to Build Hydroprocessing Catalyst Manufacturing Plant in Saudi Arabia 415
3.10.2 Axens Mild Hydrocracking and HyC-10 416
3.10.3 Axens Two-Stage Hydrocracking 417
3.10.4 Axens Once-Through HyK Hydrocracker 419
3.10.5 Axens Amorphous-Type Hydrocracking Catalyst HDK 776 419
3.10.6 Axens Hydrocracking Reactor Performance 420
3.10.7 Axens’ Hydrocracking Technologies 421
3.11 UNICAT Catalyst Technologies 422
3.11.1 UNICAT HT-86R 423
3.11.2 UNICAT Catalyst Technologies 423
3.12 Reforming Catalysts 423
3.13 Haldor Topsoe Reforming Catalysts 424
3.13.1 Topsoe Steam Reforming Features 427
3.13.2 Topsoe's Steam Reforming Portfolio 427
3.13.3 Haldor Topsoe Light Feedstock Reforming Catalysts 430
3.14 Honeywell UOP CCR Catalyst 431
3.14.1 Honeywell UOP Naphtha Hydrotreating Catalysts 432
3.14.2 UOP High Performance Chloride Treaters 433
3.14.3 UOP Hydroprocessing Guard Bed Materials 434
3.14.4 Honeywell Unity™ Hydrocracking Catalysts 435
3.14.5 Honeywell Unity™ Hydrotreating Catalysts Support End-To-End Solutions 436
3.15 SINOPEC Catalyst Company FCC, Hydrocracking Catalysts, Residual Oil Hydrogenation Catalysts, Reforming Catalysts 437
3.16 Clariant Catalysts 449
3.16.1 Clariant Petrochemical & Refining Catalysts 450
3.16.2 Clariant Syngas Catalysts 450
3.16.3 Clariant Chemical Catalysts 450
3.16.4 Clariant Emissions Control Catalyst 451
3.16.5 Clariant Custom Catalysts 452
3.17 Grace 453
3.17.1 Grace FCC Catalysts 454
3.17.2 Grace Polyolefin Catalysts 457
3.18 Albemarle FCC 463
3.18.1 Albemarle FCC Heavy Oil Upgrading 464
3.18.2 Albemarle FCC Additives 464
3.18.3 Albemarle Bespoke Catalyst Solution 465
3.18.4 Albemarle GO-ULTRA Catalyst Improving Bottoms Conversion 466
3.18.5 Albemarle Propylene Maximization in FCC and Residue FCC 468
3.18.6 Albemarle AFX 469
3.18.7 Albemarle Cerium In SOx Additives 469
3.18.8 Albemarle SOxMASTER SOx Reduction Additive 470
3.18.9 Albemarle SOx Additive Predictive Model 471
3.18.10 Albemarle’s Rare Earth Free Fuel-Sulfur and SOx-Reduction Solutions 476
3.18.11 Albemarle Driving Down Sox Mitigation Costs 476
3.18.12 Albemarle European Refinery That Uses 7% SOxMASTER 477
3.18.13 Albemarle High-Performance Low Rare Earth Technology: Rare Earth Market 477
3.18.14 Albemarle Step Change In Catalyst Design Technology For Gas Processing, Refining, Residue Upgrading And Petrochemicals 478
3.18.15 Albemarle Delivering Premium FCC Catalysts 479
3.18.16 Albemarle KF 770 Catalyst 479
3.18.17 Albemarle Bespoke Catalyst Solution 482
3.18.18 Albemarle Energy from Alternative Fuel Sources 484
3.18.19 Albemarle and Petrobras’s Brazil-Based Joint-Venture Company, Fábrica Carioca de Catalisadores SA (FCC SA) 485
3.18.20 Albemarle Advantage In Polyethylene Polyolefin Catalyst Technologies 486
3.18.21 Albemarle Breaking Into The Russian GO-ULTRA Gas Oil FCC Market 486
3.18.22 Albemarle Specialty Resins 487
3.18.23 Albemarle Polyolefin And Chemical Catalysts Division 489
3.18.24 Albemarle Catalyst Accessibility 490
3.18.25 Albemarle Propylene Maximization in FCC and Residue FCC 491
3.18.26 Albemarle AFX 491
3.19 BASF FCC Proximal Stable Matrix and Zeolite (Prox-SMZ) 492
3.19.1 BASF 493
3.19.2 BASF Multi-Stage Reaction Catalyst (MSRC) Platform 494
3.19.3 BASF Advanced Matrix Material 494
3.19.4 BASF Development of the Stamina Catalyst 496
3.19.5 BASF Stamina resid FCC Distillate Maximization Catalyst 497
3.19.6 Commercial Evaluation of BASF Stamina at Big West Oil in Salt Lake City, UT in the FCC Unit 499
3.19.7 BASF Catalyst Technology Achieves Maximization Of Highly Efficient FCC Distillate 502
3.19.8 BASF Development of the Stamina Catalyst 506
3.20 Rive Technology and Grace Davison 510
3.20.1 Rive Technology FCC 510
3.21 Johnson Matthey FCC Additives & Catalyst Handling Technologies 512

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