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Power Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Scenario in Europe - Infrastructure, Investment and Regulations Analysis to 2020

Published By :

GlobalData

Published Date : Aug 2013

Category :

Power

No. of Pages : N/A


The report provides an in-depth analysis of the T&D markets in the UK, Norway, Ireland, France, Russia, Germany and Italy in terms of infrastructure, investment and regulatory structure. Information is provided relating to T&D lines, transmission capacity, substations and cross-border grid interconnections. Key drivers and restraints impacting the market are also discussed and information is provided regarding smart grid deployment in these countries. The report throws light on power imports and exports in the countries in question, as well as the investment and initiatives planned in the T&D sector during the forecast period. The report also provides a comparative snapshot of these key countries in Europe in terms of the current status of their T&D markets.

Scope

  • Information related to power supply structure in the UK, Norway, Ireland, France, Russia, Germany and Italy
  • Analysis of T&D market covering network lines (Ckm), capacity (MVA) and substations (units) in the above mentioned key countries
  • Information on operational and under construction/planned cross border grid interconnections for the above mentioned key countries
  • Information concerning the smart grid, and power imports and exports in the above mentioned key countries
  • T&D investment planned during the forecast period in the above mentioned key countries
  • Key regulations influencing the T&D market in the above mentioned key countries
  • A comparative snapshot of these key countries in Europe in terms of the current status of the power T&D market in each country

Reasons To Buy

  • Facilitate decision-making based on historic and forecast data related to T&D capacity, line length and substations in the UK, Norway, Ireland, France, Russia, Germany and Italy
  • Refine business strategies with a complete understanding of the trends and developments shaping the T&D markets in the above mentioned key countries
  • Evaluate opportunities in promising T&D markets to quantify potential returns on investment
Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents 2 
1.1 List of Tables 10 
1.2 List of Figures 13

2 Executive Summary 16 
2.1 Huge Investments in Power Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Expected in Forecast Period 16 
2.2 Incorporation of Renewable Energy into the Grid to Drive T&D Market in Europe 17 
2.3 Increased Focus on Electricity Supply Security through Cross-border Grid Interconnections 18 
2.4 Smart Grid Deployment to Attract Investments in the Power Distribution Sector 18

3 GlobalData Report Guidance 19

4 T&D Market, Europe 20

5 T&D Market, Key Markets, the UK 23 
5.1 The UK, Country Overview 23 
5.2 The UK, Power Supply Structure 24 
5.3 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure 26 
5.3.1 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, GB Transmission System 26 
5.3.2 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Northern Ireland Transmission System 33 
5.3.3 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Total Electricity Transmission System 34 
5.4 The UK, Interconnections 39 
5.5 The UK, Import and Export Scenario 41 
5.6 The UK, Status of Major Transmission Projects 43 
5.7 The UK, Project TransmiT 47 
5.8 The UK, Distribution Infrastructure 48 
5.8.1 The UK, Distribution Infrastructure, GB Distribution System 48 
5.8.2 The UK, Distribution Infrastructure, Northern Ireland, Distribution System 57 
5.9 The UK, Smart Grid 61 
5.10 The UK, T&D Market, Planned Investments 63 
5.11 The UK, T&D Market, Drivers 67 
5.11.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 67 
5.11.2 Incorporation of New Conventional Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 67 
5.11.3 Diversification of Power Mix through Investments in Renewable Energy 67 
5.11.4 Upgrade of the Ageing Network 68 
5.11.5 Smart Grid Deployment 68 
5.12 The UK, T&D Market, Restraints 68 
5.12.1 Uncertainty in Country’s Energy Policy 68 
5.12.2 Delay in Planning Approval and Land Acquistion Restraining Grid Expansion 69 
5.12.3 Financial Constraints 69 
5.12.4 Shortage of Skilled Labour 69 
5.13 The UK, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives 71 
5.13.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 71 
5.13.2 Regulatory framework– Unbundling and Network Codes 71 
5.13.3 Regulatory price control 72 
5.13.4 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Transmission in GB 74 
5.13.5 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Distribution in GB 74 
5.13.6 Climate Change Act 75 
5.13.7 Renewable Energy Policies 75 
5.13.8 Low Carbon Industrial Strategy 76 
5.13.9 OFTO Initiative 77

6 T&D Market, Key Markets, Norway 79 
6.1 Norway, Country Overview 79 
6.2 Norway, Power Supply Structure 80 
6.3 Norway, Transmission Infrastructure 83 
6.4 Norway, Interconnections 89 
6.5 Norway, Import and Export Scenario 93 
6.6 Norway, Status of Major Transmission Projects 95 
6.7 Norway, Distribution Infrastructure 96 
6.8 Norway, Smart Grid 101 
6.9 Norway, T&D Market, Planned Investments 102 
6.9.1 Norway, T&D Market, Planned Investments 102 
6.10 Norway, T&D Market, Drivers 104 
6.10.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 104 
6.10.2 Incorporation of New Non-conventional Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 104 
6.10.3 Low Security of Supply and Limited Transmission Capacity 104 
6.10.4 Rising Power Consumption 105 
6.10.5 Smart Grid Deployment 105 
6.11 Norway, T&D Market, Restraints 105 
6.11.1 Lack of Strong Support for Wind 105 
6.11.2 Lower Power Prices to Restrict Investment in Wind Capacity 106 
6.12 Norway, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives 107 
6.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 107 
6.12.2 Regulatory Framework 107 
6.12.3 Power Market Major Policies 108 
6.12.4 Unbundling 108 
6.12.5 Network tariffs for connection and access 108 
6.12.6 Clean Energy for the Future (ENERGIX) Program, 2013–2022 109 
6.12.7 Energi21– R&D Strategy for the Energy Sector 110

7 T&D Market, Key Markets, Ireland 112 
7.1 Ireland, Country Overview 112 
7.2 Ireland, Power Supply Structure 113 
7.3 Ireland, Transmission Infrastructure 114 
7.4 Ireland, Interconnections 123 
7.5 Ireland, Import and Export Scenario 126 
7.6 Ireland, Status of Major Transmission Projects 128 
7.7 Ireland, Distribution Infrastructure 131 
7.8 Ireland, Smart Grid 135 
7.9 Ireland, T&D Market, Planned Investments 135 
7.9.1 Ireland, T&D Market, Planned Investments 135 
7.10 Ireland, T&D Market, Drivers 138 
7.10.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 138 
7.10.2 Incorporation of New Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 138 
7.10.3 Renewable Power Export to UK 139 
7.10.4 Smart Grid Deployment 139 
7.11 Ireland, T&D Market, Restraints 139 
7.11.1 Electrification Ratio Limiting the Scope for the Growth of T&D Lines 139 
7.11.2 Financial Crisis 140 
7.12 Ireland, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives 141 
7.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 141 
7.12.2 Market Liberalization 141 
7.12.3 Electricity Supply Regulations– Voltage and Frequency 142 
7.12.4 Unbundling 142 
7.12.5 Network Charges 143 
7.12.6 Renewable Energy Policy 143

8 T&D Market, Key Markets, France 144 
8.1 France, Country Overview 144 
8.2 France, Power Supply Structure 145 
8.3 France, Transmission Infrastructure 146 
8.4 France, Interconnections 155 
8.5 France, Import and Export Scenario 159 
8.6 France, Status of Major Transmission Projects 161 
8.7 France, Distribution Infrastructure 163 
8.8 France, Smart Grid 165 
8.9 France, T&D Market, Planned Investments 167 
8.10 France, T&D Market, Drivers 171 
8.10.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 171 
8.10.2 Incorporation of New Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 171 
8.10.3 Replacement of the Aging Infrastructure 172 
8.10.4 Smart Grid Deployment 174 
8.11 France, T&D Market, Restraints 175 
8.11.1 Electrification Ratio Limiting the Scope for the Growth of T&D Lines 175 
8.11.2 Cumbersome Permitting Process 175 
8.11.3 Financial Crisis 175 
8.12 France, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives 176 
8.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 176 
8.12.2 Deregulation of Electricity Sector 176 
8.12.3 Network Tariffs 177 
8.12.4 ToU Pricing 178 
8.12.5 Renewable Energy Policies 179

9 T&D Market, Key Markets, Russia 182 
9.1 Russia, Country Overview 182 
9.2 Russia, Power Supply Structure 183 
9.3 Russia, Transmission Infrastructure 185 
9.4 Russia, Interconnections 195 
9.5 Russia, Imports and Exports 197 
9.6 Russia, Status of Major Transmission Projects 200 
9.7 Russia, Distribution Infrastructure 202 
9.8 Russia, Smart Grid 212 
9.9 Russia, T&D Market, Investments 213 
9.10 Russia, T&D Market, Drivers 217 
9.10.1 Growing Electricity Demand 217 
9.10.2 Grid Upgrade and Expansion 217 
9.10.3 Integration of Regional Systems and Interconnections with other Countries 217 
9.10.4 Integration of New Power Generation Sources in to the Grid 219 
9.11 Russia, T&D Market, Restraints 219 
9.11.1 Regulatory Framework 219 
9.11.2 Financing 220 
9.12 Russia, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives 221 
9.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 221 
9.12.2 Power Sector Restructuring 221

10 T&D Market, Key Markets, Germany 225 
10.1 Germany, Country Overview 225 
10.2 Germany, Power Supply Structure 226 
10.3 Germany, Transmission Infrastructure 228 
10.4 Germany, Interconnections 235 
10.5 Germany, Imports and Exports 238 
10.6 Germany, Status of Major Transmission Projects 240 
10.7 Germany, Distribution Infrastructure 244 
10.8 Germany, Smart Grid 247 
10.8.1 E-Energy Model Projects 247 
10.8.2 Roadmap for Implementing Smart Grids in Germany by 2022 249 
10.9 Germany, T&D Market, Investments 250 
10.10 Germany, T&D Market, Drivers 252 
10.10.1 Interconnections with Other Countries 252 
10.10.2 Integration of Offshore Wind Power Generation Assets to the Grid 252 
10.10.3 Integration of Other Power Generation Sources into the Grid 252 
10.10.4 Smart Grid 252 
10.11 Germany, T&D Market, Restraints 253 
10.11.1 Regulatory Process 253 
10.11.2 Electricity Prices 253 
10.12 Germany, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives 254 
10.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 254 
10.12.2 Regulatory Scenario, Major Policies 254 
10.12.3 Amendment of the German Energy Act 255 
10.12.4 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Transmission 256 
10.12.5 Grid Expansion Acceleration Act 256 
10.12.6 Target Grid 2050 256 
10.12.7 Renewable Energy Sources Act 257 
10.12.8 Support for Offshore Development 258

11 T&D Market, Key Markets, Italy 260 
11.1 Italy, Country Overview 260 
11.2 Italy, Power Supply Structure 261 
11.3 Italy, Transmission Infrastructure 262 
11.4 Italy, Interconnections 271 
11.5 Italy, Imports and Exports 273 
11.6 Italy, Status of Major Transmission Projects 275 
11.7 Italy, Distribution Infrastructure 279 
11.8 Italy, Smart Grid 286 
11.9 Italy, T&D Market, Investments 287 
11.10 Italy, T&D Market, Drivers 288 
11.10.1 Interconnections with other Countries 288 
11.10.2 Integration of new power generation assets including renewable energy to the grid 288 
11.10.3 Rising power consumption 288 
11.11 Italy, T&D Market, Restraints 288 
11.11.1 Slow Authorization Process 288 
11.11.2 Debt Crisis 289 
11.12 Italy, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives 290 
11.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 290 
11.12.2 Power Market Reforms 290 
11.12.3 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Transmission 290 
11.12.4 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Distribution 291 
11.12.5 Nuclear Energy Development 291 
11.12.6 Renewable Energy Development 292

12 T&D Market, Europe, Snapshot of Present Status of T&D in Key Countries 294

13 Appendix 296 
13.1 Market Definitions 296 
13.1.1 Power 296 
13.1.2 Installed Capacity 296 
13.1.3 Electricity Generation 296 
13.1.4 Electricity Consumption 296 
13.1.5 Renewable Energy Resources 296 
13.1.6 Power T&D 296 
13.1.7 High Voltage Direct Current Cables 296 
13.1.8 Smart Meters 296 
13.1.9 Distributed Energy Generation Systems 296 
13.1.10 Exchange Rates and Unit Conversions 297 
13.2 Abbreviations 298 
13.3 Bibliography 301 
13.4 Methodology 314 
13.4.1 Coverage 314 
13.4.2 Secondary Research 314 
13.4.3 Primary Research 315 
13.5 Contact Us 315 
13.6 Disclaimer 315

List of Table


Table 1: T&D Market, Europe, Key Countries, Renewable Capacity Additions (MW), 2013–2020 22 
Table 2: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Electricity Transmission System Performance, 2011–2012 30 
Table 3: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Offshore Transmission Systems, Tendering Details, 2013 32 
Table 4: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 35 
Table 5: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 38 
Table 6: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000–2012 43 
Table 7: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Status of Major Transmission Projects, March, 2013 44 
Table 8: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Distribution Network Areas, 2013 50 
Table 9: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, Line Length (Ckm), 2011 58 
Table 10: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 60 
Table 11: T&D Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE, Renewable Integration Investment Break-up ($m), 2012-2017 65 
Table 12: T&D Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, BAU Scenario Investment Break-up ($m), 2012–2017 65 
Table 13: T&D Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE Investment Break-up Over the Years ($m), 2012-2017 66 
Table 14: T&D Market, GB, RIIO, Change in Consumer Bills ($), 2013 73 
Table 15: T&D Market, Northern Ireland, RP5, Customer Cost Increase ($), 2013 74 
Table 16: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 86 
Table 17: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 88 
Table 18: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Interconnections, Operational, Skagerrak 1–3, Technical Details, 2012 89 
Table 19: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Interconnections, Operational, 2012 90 
Table 20: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Interconnections, Under Construction/Planned/Proposed, 2012 92 
Table 21: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000–2012 94 
Table 22: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), By Countries, 2010 and 2011 94
Table 23: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Status of Major Transmission Projects, Under Construction, 2013 95 
Table 24: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Status of Other Key Transmission Projects, Planned, 2013 95 
Table 25: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 98 
Table 26: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 100 
Table 27: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 117 
Table 28: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 119 
Table 29: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 122 
Table 30: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000–2012 127 
Table 31: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Major Transmission Projects, New Projects, 2013 128 
Table 32: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Major Planned Transmission Projects, Upgrade, Year of Commissioning–2013 129 
Table 33: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Major Planned Transmission Projects, Upgrade, Year of Commissioning–2014 130 
Table 34: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 132 
Table 35: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 38kV, 2000-2020 134 
Table 36: Ireland, T&D Market, Permissible Voltage Limits, 2012 142 
Table 37: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 150 
Table 38: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 152 
Table 39: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 154 
Table 40: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Interconnections, Annual Net Total Capacity, 2013 157 
Table 41: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000–2012 160 
Table 42: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Major Transmission Line Projects, New Projects, 2013 161 
Table 43: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Major Planned Transmission Line Projects, Upgrade, 2013 162 
Table 44: Distribution Infrastructure, France, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 164 
Table 45: T&D Market, France, Transmission Investments, RTE ($m), 2004–2013 168 
Table 46: T&D Market, France, Transmission Investments, ERDF ($m), 2007–2011 170 
Table 47: T&D Market, France, Power Plants, Wind, Under Construction, 2013 172 
Table 48: T&D Market, France, Spending on Physical Reinforcement ($m), 2000–2010 173 
Table 49: T&D Market, France, Opening of the Electricity Market 177 
Table 50: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 187 
Table 51: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Pricing zones, 2012 189 
Table 52: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 191 
Table 53: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 194 
Table 54: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Key Interconnectors, Operational 195 
Table 55: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Total Annual Power Exports (GWh) by Country, 2010, 2011 and 2012 197 
Table 56: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Total Annual Power Imports (GWh) by Country, 2010, 2011 and 2012 198 
Table 57: Power Market, Russian, Annual Electricity Import and Export (GWh), 2000–2012 199 
Table 58: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Key Investment Projects, 2013-2017 201 
Table 59: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 204 
Table 60: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 35kV, 2000-2020 208 
Table 61: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Substation (Units), 2000-2020 211 
Table 62: T&D Market, Russia, FGC, Planned Investment in Transmission, 2013-2017 213 
Table 63: T&D Market, Russia, FGC, Transmission Line and Capacity Commissioning Plan, 2013-2017 214 
Table 64: T&D Market, Russia, FGC, Breakdown of the Transmission Investment Plan, 2013-2017 215 
Table 65: T&D Market, Russia, Breakdown of the Distribution Investment Plan, 2013-2017 216 
Table 66: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 230 
Table 67: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, TSOs Particulars, 2012 231 
Table 68: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 233 
Table 69: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Interconnections, Net Transfer Capacity, 2011 236 
Table 70: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000–2012 239 
Table 71: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Major Transmission Line Projects, New Projects, 2013 240 
Table 72: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Major Transmission Line Projects, Upgrade Projects, 2013 241 
Table 73: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 245 
Table 74: T&D Market, Germany, Investments, Capacity Addition Under Two Scenarios (GW), 2012 251 
Table 75: T&D Market, Germany, Investments, Infrastructure Expansion and Modernization Under Two Scenarios (km), 2012 251 
Table 76: T&D Market, Germany, Investments, Investment Amount Under Two Scenarios (€m($m)), 2012 251 
Table 77: Renewable Power Market, Germany, Targeted Contribution from Renewable Energy (%), 2020–2050 258 
Table 78: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 264 
Table 79: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 268 
Table 80: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 270 
Table 81: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Interconnections, Net Transfer Capacity, 2012 271 
Table 82: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000–2012 274 
Table 83: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Major Transmission Line Projects, Terna, 2013 275 
Table 84: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Major Transmission Substation Projects, Terna, 2013 276 
Table 85: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 281 
Table 86: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 283 
Table 87: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Substations (Units), 2000-2020 285 
Table 88: T&D Market, Europe, Key Countries, Snapshot, 2012 294 
Table 89: T&D Market, Europe, Key Countries, Smart Grid Status, Snapshot, 2012 295 
Table 90: T&D, Europe, Currency Exchange Rates 297 
Table 91: Abbreviations 298

List of Chart


Figure 1: T&D Market, Europe, Key Countries, Forecast Average Annual Investments ($bn) 16 
Figure 2: T&D Market, Europe, Key Countries, Renewable Capacity Additions (MW), 2013–2020 17 
Figure 3: T&D Market, Europe, Key Countries, Renewable Capacity Additions (MW), 2013–2020 21 
Figure 4: Power Supply Structure, the UK 25 
Figure 5: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, NETS Electricity Transmission System, 2012 26 
Figure 6: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, NGET Electricity Transmission System, 2012 27 
Figure 7: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, SPTL Electricity Transmission System, 2012 28 
Figure 8: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, SHETL Electricity Transmission System, 2012 29 
Figure 9: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Current and Potential Offshore Wind Farm Projects, 2012 31 
Figure 10: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, NIE Electricity Transmission System, 2011 33 
Figure 11: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 34 
Figure 12: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 37 
Figure 13: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000–2012 42 
Figure 14: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, Wind Cluster Programme, Status, March, 2013 46 
Figure 15: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Regions Covered by Six Distribution Companies 48 
Figure 16: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, UK Power Networks Electricity 52 
Figure 17: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, SP Energy Networks 53 
Figure 18: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, SEPD 54 
Figure 19: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, SHEPD 54 
Figure 20: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Electricity North West 56 
Figure 21: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Electricity North West 57 
Figure 22: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 59 
Figure 23: T&D Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE, Renewable Integration Investment Break-up ($m), 2012-2017 64 
Figure 24: T&D Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE Investment Break-up Over the Years ($m), 2012-2017 66 
Figure 25: Norway, Power Supply Structure 81 
Figure 26: Norway, Power T&D Structure, Monopoly Actors and Market Players 81 
Figure 27: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Electricity Transmission System, 2013 84 
Figure 28: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 85 
Figure 29: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 87 
Figure 30: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000–2012 93 
Figure 31: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 97 
Figure 32: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 99 
Figure 33: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Planned Investments, Statnett, 2011–2016 102 
Figure 34: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Annual Investments, Statnett (NOKm), 1975–2022 103 
Figure 35: Ireland, Power Supply Structure 113 
Figure 36: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Electricity Transmission System, 2013 115 
Figure 37: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 116 
Figure 38: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 118 
Figure 39: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Single Electricity Market, Overview, 2013 120 
Figure 40: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 121 
Figure 41: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Interconnections with Northern Ireland, 2012 124 
Figure 42: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000–2012 126 
Figure 43: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 131 
Figure 44: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 38kV, 2000-2020 133 
Figure 45: T&D Market, Ireland, Planned Investments, Network Regions 136 
Table 46: T&D Market, Ireland, Planned Investments, Grid25 136 
Figure 47: France, Power Supply Structure 145 
Figure 48: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Electricity Transmission System Map, 400kV lines, 2013 147 
Figure 49: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Electricity Transmission System Map, 225kV and 400kV lines, 2013 148 
Figure 50: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 149 
Figure 51: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 151 
Figure 52: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 153 
Figure 53: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Interconnections, 2013 156 
Figure 54: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2002–2012 159 
Figure 55: Distribution Infrastructure, France, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 163 
Figure 56: T&D Market, France, Transmission Investments, RTE ($m), 2004–2013 167 
Figure 57: T&D Market, France, Transmission Investments, ERDF ($m), 2007–2011 170 
Figure 58: T&D Market, France, Spending on Physical Reinforcement ($m), 2000–2010 173 
Figure 59: Russia, Power Supply Structure 184 
Figure 60: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 186 
Figure 61: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Pricing zones, 2012 188 
Figure 62: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 190 
Figure 63: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 193 
Figure 64: Power Market, Russia, Annual Electricity Import and Export (GWh), 2000–2012 198 
Figure 65: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Key Investment Projects, 2013-2017 200 
Figure 66: Russia, Regional Presence of Russian Electricity Distribution Companies, 2012 202 
Figure 67: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 203 
Figure 68: Russia, Depreciation Rates for Distribution Companies, 2010 205 
Figure 69: Russia, Comparison of Power Loss Ratio of MRSKs and Foreign Peers, 2010 206 
Figure 70: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 35kV, 2000-2020 207 
Figure 71: Russia, Depreciation Ratios Under RAB and Cost Plus 209 
Figure 72: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Substation (Units), 2000-2020 210 
Figure 73: T&D Market, Russia, FGC, Breakdown of the Transmission Investment Plan, 2013-2017 214 
Figure 74: T&D Market, Russia, FGC and IDGC, Transmission Investment Plan, 2011-2017 215 
Figure 75: Russia, Prospects of Power Trade of Russia with its Neighbors 218 
Figure 76: Germany, Power Supply Structure 226 
Figure 77: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 229 
Figure 78: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 232 
Figure 79: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Electricity Transmission, 2012 234 
Figure 80: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000–2012 238 
Figure 81: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 244 
Figure 82: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Electricity Distribution Layer*, 2012 246 
Figure 83: Italy, Power Supply Structure, 2013 261 
Figure 84: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 263 
Figure 85: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Electricity Transmission at 220kV, 2011 265 
Figure 86: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Electricity Transmission at 380kV, 2012 266 
Figure 87: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 267 
Figure 88: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 269 
Figure 89: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000–2012 273 
Figure 90: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 280 
Figure 91: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 282 
Figure 92: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Substations (Units), 2000-2020 284

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