Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign proliferative (overgrowth) form that affects the synovial membrane (also termed as stratum synoviale or synovium). Synovial membrane is a thin sheet of connective tissue that lines the inner surface of capsules of tendon sheath and synovial joints. The cell bulk or lump that results from overgrowth is not carcinogenic and does not spread to other parts of the body by metastasis. PVNS is a progressive disease that gradually becomes worse and can lead to arthritis and damage the bones. PVNS is mostly monoarticular (affects only one joint of the body or affects around 70% part of knee joint), but it can also be oligoarticular (affecting a few joints). The histology of PVNS are similar to some violent neoplasms (epithelioid sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), therefore, has an important role in managing the pathologist. Radiographs show general characteristics such as bone erosions and joint effusion. Ultrasound and CT scan can also show the hypertrophic synovium as a slightly echogenic/hyper dense soft tissue bulk. MRI is the best method that shows the mass like synovial propagation with lobulated margins, with small signal intensity and “blooming” structure on gradient echo. These gradient echoes are due to deposition of hemosiderin (an iron-storage complex).
Mostly PVNS occurs in persons with starting of mid age. There is no gender predilection for intra articular disease, whereas extra articular disease has a minor female predominance. Symptoms in PVNS include joint dysfunction, pain, and sometimes joint inflammation. Mostly, symptoms have been exist for several months before the analysis is done. It is rare among children; however, it occasionally occurs and is more often polyarticular. It can also been defined in relation with: vascular lesions, Noonan syndrome, multiple lentigines syndrome, mandibular lesions, extremity lymphedema, and cherubism. Treatment includes surgery to eliminate the tumor (lumps) and the injured parts of the joint lining. When local PVNS has also injured a tendon, doctor will repair it by removing the tumor.
Rise in concerns and awareness related to health and increased prevalence of the disease are the major factors fueling the growth of the pigmented villonodular synovitis treatment market. Moreover, availability of advanced medications and surgical procedures are the other factors driving the market. However, unawareness about disease and less availability of advanced resources and medical facilities in underdeveloped countries restrain the market.
The global pigmented villonodular synovitis treatment market can be segmented based on type of treatment, end-user, and region. In terms of type of treatment, the market can be classified into drug therapy, radiation therapy, and surgical operation. The drug therapy segment can be sub-segmented into cabiralizumab, emactuzumab, mcs-110, nilotinib, and others. The surgical operation segment can be divided into arthroscopy, open surgery, combined arthroscopic and open surgery, and total joint replacement. Based on end-user, the global villonodular synovitis treatment market can be categorized into hospitals, surgical clinics, and others.
In terms of region, the global pigmented villonodular synovitis treatment market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to dominate the global pigmented villonodular synovitis treatment market due to availability of advanced surgical procedures, medications, and other therapies such as radiation therapy. Awareness among the people about the diseases is another factor boosting the market in this region. The pigmented villonodular synovitis treatment market in Asia Pacific is anticipated to expand at a high growth rate due to increase in prevalence of the disease.
Key players operating in the global pigmented villonodular synovitis treatment market are Plexxikon, Inc., Novartis AG, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, among others.
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