Medical Waste is a discarded biological product such as blood, laboratories waste, morgues, microbiological waste, and pathological waste. It can also be applied to syringes, bedding, bandage and other similar product used for treatment of patient a well as animal body used during research. Medical waste treatment reduces consumption of raw material and reduce the waste material volume dumped in landfill. Less landfill waste means reduced greenhouse gases, reduced burning of fossil fuel will lead to less carbon-dioxide in environment. Some of the Primary source of medical waste are hospital, clinics, laboratory, nursing homes, dispensary and many more.Medical waste is categorized into different types such as infectious waste, pathological waste, Pharmaceutical wastes, Radioactive waste, Sharps waste,Genotoxic waste, laboratory waste, biodegradable waste, recyclable wasteetc. mishandling or improper medical waste disposal can lead to many health hazards such as Hospital Acquired Infection of patient, injuries from sharps waste handler associated with heath care industry and many more. Medical waste releases a number of compound and hazardous gas when burned, which includes dioxins and furans, hydrochloric acid, as well as poisonous metal like mercury, lead and cadmium.
Medical waste can be primarily treated usingincineration, autoclaves mechanical/chemical Disinfection, microwave and irradiation. Incineration is a process where medical waste undergo controlled burning in a dedicated waste incinerator, italso reduces the volume of waste and eliminate the need of pre-processing the waste. Autoclaves apply both pressure and heat in a closed chamber with steam for specific time to sterilize the medical equipment and it is generally used to destroy microorganism that are present in medical waste. Chemical disinfection is done by adding chlorine based chemical into liquid to disinfect it and destroy the biohazards that can be formed from it. Microwave is the process where initially shredding is done to reduce the volume of waste and mixed with water and subjected to microwave. High temperature of microwave results in steam formation from water which neutralizes the biohazards effectively. Microwave is the cheapest form of neutralizing the biohazards.
Globally energy waste technology is underfunded and poorly implemented. Three main international body who draft and guideline the policy for medical waste are the World Health Organization, the Basel Convention, and the Stockholm Convention. The World Health Organization look for both policy draft and core principle which implies to governments and donors to the subject. The Basel Convention defines the waste type and sub categories of it such as laboratory waste and clinic waste. The Stockholm Convention aims to eliminate, reduce and restrict the 252 chemical which includes Furnas and dioxins. Creation of international law based upon the organization will help government of different countries to manage and regulate the medical waste treatment. Medical Waste treatment hasgrown reasonably in the upcoming years. The growing concern over environment with regard to dumping of medical waste has overall increased the demand for medical waste management globally.Americas and European regulatory bodies are very strict in handling of medical waste.
The key directive linked with medical waste treatment are Regulation, legal local legislation, landfill directive, hazardous waste directive and incineration directive. Lack of knowledge of handling the medical waste and lack of awareness about its hazardous impact to health and environment among many developing nation has retrained the technology adoption
The leading companies in the waste management sector are Veolia Environment, Waste Management Inc., Suez Environment, and StericycleInc, MedClean Management Solution,Inc., Bondtech Medical Waste Containers ,Biomedical Waste Solution, Switch Medical Waste Service,XMED Disposal, United Medical Waste Management and many more. They all have highly comprehensive ranges of services, such as reliable waste collection and advanced treatment and recovery technologies.
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