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Hydropower is currently the most widely used renewable energy sources in the world. It is also an extensively researched field in the energy sector due to the rate of success of realizing the high potential of the industry. The appropriate usage of hydropower across the world can effectively reduce the overall dependence on fossil fuels while bringing in a clean, sustainable, and naturally abundant power source. It is currently the largest renewable energy source in the U.S., one of the leading power consumers in the world. Over 100 countries currently make large scale use of hydropower, which occupies roughly 15% of the global energy pool. Many more countries are ramping their processes of harnessing hydropower in order to create a cheaper electricity generation avenue while ensuring a cleaner, greener future.

Governments are investing heavily in renewable energy projects, and several nations gold hydropower at the top of the mix. With a large number of small, mid-sized, and large hydropower stations being employed in all parts of the world, we can expect a greater need for advanced research and development efforts into improving hydropower efficiency. Currently, the large hydropower stations in use are impoundment plants, pumped storage plants, and diversion plants, of which impoundment and pumped storage plants are the more commonly used across the world. Although the overall cost of building and maintaining larger reservoirs for hydropower plants is quite high, the payoff is equally high, prompting several organizations step up their investments in the field.