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Advanced Targeted Drug Delivery Global Market

Published By :

Kelly Scientific Publications

Published Date : Apr 2019

Category :

Drug Delivery

No. of Pages : N/A

This newly published report is a global industry analysis on the advanced and targeted drug delivery market that KellySciPub forecasts to grow at a 10.4% CAGR to $319 billion by 2021 from $168 billion today. Supported by over 300 tables and figures, this 382 page report is an extensive industry analysis specifically written for C-Suite, VP and Higher executives within the Pharma and Biotech space.

The advanced and targeted drug delivery market is segmented and analysed through to 2021 with corresponding CAGR breakdown by:

  • Technology (Nanoparticles, Polymers (micelles, dendrimers etc), Monoclonal antibodies, Gold nanoparticles-based drug delivery and imaging, Drug eluting stents)
  • Geography (Global, USA, Europe, RoW)
  • Therapeutic Area (Pulmonary, Ocular drug delivery, Ocular nano-based drug delivery implants, Drug Eluting Stents,
  • Sub-Market Analysis (details below)


The monoclonal antibody  market is further broken down and presented as the top selling mAbs by company, class and revenue through to 2021 with corresponding CAGR values.  Specific figures are given in relation to Humira, Remicade, Avastin, Rituxan, Soliris, Herceptin, Kadcyla, Perjeta, Lucentis, Xgeva/Prolia, Stelara and Tysarbi.

The global market for nano-based targeted drug delivery is presented by the following sub-markets liposomes, polymers (micelles, dendrimers etc) and gold nano-particles through to 2021 with corresponding CAGR figures.

The global pulmonary drug delivery market is analysed and presented as metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and nebulizers through 2021 with corresponding CAGR data. This market is also divided into the following geographical regions USA, Europe, RoW, Global through 2021 with corresponding CAGR analysis.

Our PhD analysts identify breakthrough R&D papers and patents and delve into disruptive technical platforms that is revolutionising drug delivery systems. Business, financial and market analysis is performed on all data collated to yield robust figures and forecast through 2021 with CAGR values. Together, our scientific and business team provides you with their in depth knowledge, experience and perspective on the targeted drug delivery landscape.   Stake holder analysis of key players including innovators, developers and commercial partners is performed and an in depth chapter of 170 companies involved is presented.  The analysis includes details of how is breakthrough technology adoption is changing the drug delivery landscape and also how emerging products like hydrogels, PEGylated phospholipid nanocarriers and cyclodextrins are disrupting conventional markets.

Key Questions Answered in this Report:


  • What are the maximum drug release times reported for various nano-based drug carriers?
  • What regulatory agencies are approving specific nanomedicines?
  • How many liposome-based drugs are available in the market?
  • How many stealth liposomes have been granted market approval?
  • How many PEGylated liposomes are used for targeted drug delivery?
  • Who are the leading players in liposome-based drug formulation?
  • What are stimuli-responsive polymers?
  • Who are the market leaders in polymer-based drugs?
  • What dendrimer-based drugs are the commercially available for targeted delivery?
  • What are the applications of inorganic nanoparticles in targeted drug deliver?
  • Which companies are focusing on inorganic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery?
  • What are the applications of magnetic nanoparticles in drug delivery, diagnostic and imaging?
  • What is the global market value of nanomedicines?
  • What is the global market for nanomedicines by therapeutic areas?
  • What is the global market for monoclonal antibodies by geography?
  • What are the best-selling mAbs?
  • What is the global market for major targeted delivery systems?

Table of Contents

1.0 Executive Summary           

1.1 Objectives of Report
1.2 Data Sources & Methodology
1.3 Key Findings & Observations

2.0 Drug Delivery
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1  Pharmacokinetics
2.1.2  Bioavailability
2.2 Process of Drug Absorption
2.2.1  Epithelial Cells
2.2.2  Epithelial Cell Junctions
2.2.3  Drug Absorption Routes Passive Diffusion Facilitated Passive Diffusion Active Transport Endocytic Engulfment Efflux Systems
2.3 Physicochemical Properties of Drugs that Influence Absorption
2.3.1  Partition Coefficient
2.3.2  Prodrugs
2.3.3  Drug Ionization
2.3.4  Molecular Weight
2.3.5  Solubility
2.3.6  Stability
2.4 Pharmacokinetic Process
2.4.1  Absorption
2.4.2  Distribution
2.4.3  Metabolism Cytochrome p-450 Conjugation
2.4.4  Excretion
2.5 Controlled Release Drug Delivery
2.5.1  Zero-Order Controlled Release
2.5.2  Variable Release
2.6 Pharmacodynamics
2.6.1  Drug-Receptor Interactions
2.6.2  Chemical Interactions
2.6.3  Dose-Response Relationships
2.7 Biotherapeutics
2.7.1  Proteins & Peptides
2.7.2  Nucleic Acids Gene Therapy Antisense Therapy
2.8 Conclusions

3.0 Advanced & Targeted Drug Delivery
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Rate Controlled Drug Release
3.2.1  Diffusion Controlled Release Membrane-Controlled Devices Polymer Matrix diffusion Controlled/ Monolithic Devices
3.2.2  Dissolution Controlled Release Dissolution Controlled Reservoir Dissolution Controlled Matrix
3.2.3  Osmosis Controlled Drug Release
3.2.4  Mechanical Controlled Drug Release
3.2.5  Bioresponsive Controlled Drug Release

4.0 Site Directed Drug-Targeting
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Essential Factors for Effective Drug Targeting
4.2.1  The Drug to be Delivered
4.2.2  The Drug Target
4.2.3  The Drug Delivery System
4.3 Physiological Barriers to Drug Targeting
4.3.1  Elimination of the Drug Carrier Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS) Opsonisation
4.3.2  Escape From the Circulation
4.4 Types of Drug Targeting
4.4.1  Passive Drug Targeting Passive targeting by the MPS Local Physiological Conditions Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) Effect
4.4.2  Active Drug Targeting Folate Receptors Transferrin Receptors Antibodies Lectin Physical Targeting
4.5 Subcellular Drug Targeting
4.5.1  Targeting the Plasma Membrane
4.5.2  Membrane Trafficking
4.5.3  Targeting to Intracellular Compartments Early Endosomes Late Endosomes and Lysosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Complex
4.5.4  Targeting the Cytosol
4.5.5  Targeting the Nucleus
4.5.6  Targeting Mitochondria

5.0 Carriers For Drug Targeting
5.1 Options for Drug Targeting
5.2 Modification of the Drug
5.2.1  Site Specific Localization
5.2.2  Site Specific Activation of Prodrugs
5.2.3  Antibody Directed Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT) Gene Directed Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) Virus Directed Prodrug Therapy (VDEPT) Polymer-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (PDEPT) Clostridia-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (CDEPT)
5.3 Soluble Drug Carriers
5.3.1  Antibodies Polyclonal Antibodies Monoclonal Antibodies Immunoconjugates Immunotoxins Bispecific Antibodies
5.3.2  Polymeric Conjugates Polymer Backbone Linker Drug Targeting Polymer-Drug Conjugates Small Cytotoxic Protein Neocarzinostatin (SMANCS)
5.3.3  Protein Drug Carriers
5.3.4  Polysaccharide Drug Carriers
5.4 Particulate Drug Carriers
5.4.1  Principles
5.4.2  Dendrimers
5.4.3  Solid Nanoparticles Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Solid Polymeric Nanoparticles Solid Protein Nanoparticles Inorganic Nanoparticles
5.4.4: Polymeric Micelles
5.4.5  Micro and Nanoemulsions
5.4.6  Liposomes Conventional Liposomes Long-Circulating Liposomes Immunoliposomes Cationic Liposomes
5.4.7 Microspheres
5.4.8  Poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles
5.4.9  Lipoprotein Carriers
5.4.10  Niosomes
5.4.11  TransfersomesTM

6.0 Targeted Drug Delivery in the Treatment of Cancer
6.1 Cancer Facts
6.2 Drug Targeting for Cancer
6.3 Local Drug Delivery Strategies for Cancer Treatment
6.3.1  Injection into the tumour
6.3.2  Antineoplastic Drug Implants into Tumours
6.3.3  OncoGel~PGLA/PEG Copolymer-Based Paclitaxel
6.3.4  Tumour Necrosis Factor Therapy
6.3.5  Direct Introduction of Anti-Cancer Agent into an Organ
6.3.6  Electrochemotherapy Bleomycin
6.3.7  Enhancing Drug Delivery by Modulating Vascular and Interstitial Pressure
6.3.8  Convection Enhanced Drug Delivery and Brain Cancer
6.3.9  Paclimer Microspheres and Cancer
6.3.10  Expansile Nanoparticles
6.3.11  Chitosan Hydrogels
6.3.12  Polymer Millirods
6.3.13  Flexible Film Composites
6.3.14  Lipiodol-Drug Combination
6.3.15  DC Bead
6.3.16  Liposomal Gene therapy.
6.4 Selective Destruction of Cancer Cells
6.4.1  Sphingolipids
6.4.2  Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO)
6.4.3  Selective Killing of Cancer Cells by Small Molecule Targeting the Stress Response
6.4.4  Targeting Enzymes to Prevent Proliferation of Cancer Cells- Polo-Like Kinase 4 Inhibitor CFI-400945 Fumarate
6.5 Targeted Drug Delivery to Cancer
6.5.1  Affibody Molecules for Targeted Anticancer Therapy
6.5.2  Antibodies for Targeting of Radionuclides in Anticancer Therapy
6.5.3  Targaceutical Technology
6.5.4  PEGylated Liposomes
6.5.5  Genetic Targeting of Kinase Activity in Cancer Cells
6.5.6  Heat-Activated Targeted Drug Delivery
6.5.7  Novel Transporters to Target Photosensitizers to Cancer Cell Nuclei
6.5.8  Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer
6.5.9  Aptocine: A Photodynamic Cancer Vaccine?
6.5.10  Radionuclides Delivered with Receptor Targeting Technology
6.5.11  Transferrin for Drug Targeting to Cancer Cells
6.5.12  Lectins for Drug Targeting to Cancer Cells
6.5.13  Epidermal Growth Factor
6.5.14  Aptamer Mediated Drug Targeting
6.5.15  Tumour Targeting with Peptides
6.5.16  Antibody Based Targeting
6.5.17  Targeting Abnormal DNA in Cancer Cells
6.5.18  Targeted Delivery by Tumour-Activated Prodrug Therapy
6.5.19  Targeting Glutathione S-Transferase
6.5.20  Targeting Tumours by Exploiting Leaky Blood Vessels
6.5.21  Targeted Delivery of Anticancer agents with ReCODE™ Technology
6.5.22  Transmembrane Carrier Systems
6.5.23  Ultrasound and Microbubbles for Targeted Anticancer Drug Delivery
6.5.24  Ultrasound for Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics
6.5.25  Vitamin Based Targeting for Cancer Chemotherapy
6.6 Strategies for Increasing Drug Penetration into Solid Cancers
6.6.1  Improving Drug Transport to Tumors Combination Carbohydrate-Assisted Chemotherapy Dextran Conjugates as Anticancer Drug Carriers In situ Production of Anticancer Agents in Tumors Electrochemotherapy
6.7 Cell-Based Drug Delivery in Cancer
6.7.1  Transduced Cells as Vehicles for Gene Delivery
6.7.2  Macrophages as Vehicles For Drug Delivery
6.7.3  Red Blood Cells as Vehicles For Drug Delivery
6.8 Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery Systems (ChrDDs)
6.9 Angiogenesis and Drug Delivery to Tumors
6.9.1  Targeting Tumour Endothelial Cells
6.9.2  Vascular Targeting Agents as Cancer Therapeutics
6.9.3  Vascular Targeted Endoradiotherapy of Tumours using Alpha-Particle-Emitting Compounds
6.9.4  Targeted Delivery of Tissue Factor
6.10 Delivery of Proteins and Peptides for Cancer Therapy
6.10.1  CELLECTRA™ for Delivery of Cancer Vaccines
6.10.2  Emisphere’s Eligen™ System
6.10.3  Diatos DTS-201
6.10.4  Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides
6.10.5  Modification of Proteins and Peptides with Polymers
6.10.6  Peptidomimetics in Cancer Targeting
6.10.7  Peptide-Cytokine Complexes as Vascular Targeting Agents
6.10.8  Protein Transduction Technology
6.10.9  Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs)
6.11 Targeted Delivery of Nucleic Acids for Cancer Therapy
6.11.1  Viral Vectors for Targeted Nucleic Acid Delivery
6.11.2  Non-Viral Vectors for Targeted nucleic acid Delivery  Monoclonal Antibodies  Transferrin  RGD Peptide  Aptamers  Folate Receptors Aptamer-siRNA Chimeras in Prostate Cancer  Polysaccharides
6.11.3  Cell Mediated Targeting  Physical Targeting Electroporation Heat and Irradiation Ultrasound Magnetic Cell Mediated Photochemical Internalization (PCI)

7.0 Targeted Drug Delivery for the Treatment of Infectious Disease
7.1 Tuberculosis
7.1.2  Global Impact of TB
7.1.3  Treatment of TB
7.1.4  TB and HIV
7.1.5  Multidrug-Resistant TB
7.1.6  Targeted Drug Delivery Methods for TB Therapy Inhalable Antitubercular Drugs Inhalable Dry Powder Formulations for TB Treatment   Liposomal Dry Powder   Microparticles   Nanoparticles
7.2 Malaria
7.2.1  Diagnosis and Treatment
7.2.2  Antimalarial Drug Resistance
7.2.3  Pathogenesis of Malarial Infection
7.2.4  Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Malaria
7.2.5  Lipid Based Nanocarriers for Antimalarials and Vaccines Liposomes as Antimalarial Carriers   Conventional and Long-Circulating Liposomes   Negatively Charged Liposomes   Targeted Liposomes   Peptide Targeted Liposomes   Antibodies to Target Liposomes   Liposomes as Anti-Malarial Vaccine Adjuvants   SLNs as Carriers for Anti-Malarials   Emulsions as Carriers for Anti-Malarials
7.2.6  Polymers as Nanocarriers for Anti-Malarials
7.2.7  Other Nanocarriers for Anti-Malarials   Cyclodextrins and Inclusion Complexes with Anti-Malarials   Nanosuspensions as Carriers for Anti-Malarials
7.2.8  Nanocapsules
7.2.9  Drug Delivery to the Malaria Parasite Using an Arterolane-Like Scaffold (195)
7.2.10  Conclusions
7.3.1  Treatment of HIV/AIDS
7.3.2  Targeting Strategies for the Delivery of Anti-HIV Drugs Targeting the Virus   Glycoprotein-120   Glycoprotein-41 Targeting the Host Cell   Leukocyte Function Associated Antigen 1 (LFA-1)   Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)   C-type Lectin DC-SIGN   Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD4   Chemokine Receptor   Carbohydrate Binding Agents (CBAs)   Tuftsin   Transferrin   Aptamers Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) Passive Targeting Potential Targets

8.0 Targeted Drug Delivery by Physiological Region
8.1 Blood Brain Barrier
8.1.1  The Neurovascular Unit
8.1.2  Transport Across the Blood Brain Barrier
8.1.3  Biological and Pathological Properties of the Blood Brain Barrier for Drug Transport
8.2 Modern Methods for Drug Transport Across the Blood Brain Barrier
8.2.1  Opening Tight Junctions
8.2.2  Transport System Mediated Drug Delivery   Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery to the Brain   Aggregated Amphiphiles   IgG Fusion Proteins
8.2.3  Transport Vectors
8.2.4  Adsorptive Mediated Transcytosis
8.2.5  Receptor Mediated Transcytosis
8.2.6  Inhibition of Efflux Pumps by Pluronic® Block Copolymers
8.2.7  Cell Mediated Drug Transport   Microglial Cells   Neural Stem Cells
8.2.8  Cell Encapsulation Technology
8.3 Opening the Blood Brain Barrier For Drug Delivery
8.3.1  Osmotic Opening of the BBB
8.3.2  Focal Disruption of BBB by Ultrasound
8.3.3  Chemical Opening of the BBB
8.3.4  Rapid and Reversible Enhancement of BBB Permeability Using Lysophosphatidic Acid
8.3.5  Minimally Invasive Molecular Delivery Into the Brain Using Optical Modulation of Vascular Permeability
8.3.6  Use of Nitric Oxide Donors to Open the BBB
8.3.7  Manipulation of the Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor System
8.3.8  Application of Bradykinin-Analogue (RMP-7, Cereport® from Alkermes)
8.3.9  Transport Across the BBB by Short Chain Oligoglycerolipids
8.3.10  Peptide Masking
8.4.1  G-Technology®
8.4 Pharmacological Strategies to Enhance CNS Drug Delivery
8.4.2  Glycosylation Independent Lysosomal Targeting (GILT)
8.4.3  Chemical Structure Modification and Co-Administration of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors
8.4.4  LipoBridge Technology
8.4.5  Exosome-Mediated Delivery of siRNA Into the Brain
8.4.6  2 B-Trans™ Technology in Gene Therapy of Alzheimer’s Disease
8.4.7  Roche Brain Shuttle
8.5 Physical Strategies to Enhance CNS Delivery
8.5.1  Intranasal Delivery
8.5.2  Intracranial Drug Delivery
8.5.3  Intracerebroventricular Injection
8.5.4  Intrathecal Administration
8.5.5  Implants for Drug Delivery
8.5.6  Devices for Drug Delivery to the CNS
8.5.7  Convection-Enhanced Delivery (CED) to the CNS
8.5.8  Drug Delivery from Biological Tissues
8.5.9  Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery to the Brain
8.5.10  Direct Injection into the CNS Substance or CNS Lesions
8.5.11  Intraventricular Injection of Drugs
8.5.12  Bacteriophage as CNS Therapeutics
8.5.13  Intrabodies
8.6 Delivering Gene Therapy to the Brain
8.6.1  Introduction   Glioblastoma- A Case Study Using Viral Vectors   Cytotoxic Gene Therapy   Stem cells as Oncolytic Virus Carriers   Suicide Gene Prodrugs   Immune Stimulation   Anti-Angiogenesis Strategies   Non- Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy Delivery to the Brain   Trojan Horse Liposomes
8.6.2  Targeting Antisense to the Brain   Antisense Therapy   Trojan Horse Liposomes- Targeting Antisense RNA Gene in Brain Cancer   High-Flow Microinfusion into the Brain Parenchyma   Introduction of Antisense Compounds into the CSF Pathways   Biodistribution of Antisense Compounds Following Intrathecal Administration   Intracerebroventricular Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotides
8.6.3  Targeting RNA Interference (RNAi) to the Brain   THL Targeting of an RNAi Gene in Brain Cancer

9.0 Drug Delivery for Treatment of Neurological Disorders
9.1 Parkinson’s disease
9.1.1  Targeted Therapies for Parkinson’s Disease   Intracerebral Administration of GDNF   Liposomes in Parkinson’s Disease   Bolaamphiphiles and V-Smart Technology   Trojan Horse Liposomes: Targeting a Therapeutic Gene in Parkinson’s Disease  Delivery of Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor with Microbubbles and Ultrasound   Using Exosomes to Deliver siRNA for Synuclein Knockdown   Targeted Drug Delivery for Parkinsons’s Disease   Cell Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease   Porcine Xenograft   Encapsulated Cells   Stem Cells   Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells  Gene Therapy for Parkinson Disease  Convection Enhanced Drug (CED) Delivery in Parkinson’s Disease
9.2 Alzheimer’s Disease
9.2.1  Drug Delivery for Alzheimer’s Disease  Perispinal Etanercept (172)   Debio 9902 (ZT-1) for Alzheimer´s Disease  Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) for Alzheimer’s Disease   Chemical Modification of Disease Therapeutic Peptides  Liposomes for Drug Delivery in Alzheimer’s Disease  Convection Enhanced Drug (CED) Delivery in Alzheimer’s Disease
9.2.2  Cell and Gene Therapy for Alzheimer Disease   Encapsulated Cell Therapy in Alzheimers Disease  RNAi therapy of Alzheimer’s Disease
9.3 Huntington’s Disease
9.3.1  Treatment of Huntington’s Disease
9.3.2  Gene therapy of Huntington’s Disease   Using Encapsulated Cells to Treat Huntington’s Disease  Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Mediated Administration of Neurotrophic Factors  Nucleotide Therapeutics for Huntingtin’s Disease Treatment
9.4 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
9.4.1  Treatment of ALS
9.4.2  Gene and Antisense Therapy of ALS  Familial ALS  Sporadic ALS
9.5 Stroke
9.5.1  Targeted Drug Delivery to Obstructed Blood Vessels Using Nanotherapeutics
9.5.2  Drug Delivery for Prevention of Restenosis of Carotid Arteries   Targeted Local Anti-Restenotic Drug Delivery   Intraluminal Drug Delivery   Drug-Eluting Stents (DES)   Drug-Eluting Balloons (DEBs)   Porous and Microporous Balloon Gene Therapy to Prevent Restenosis Nanoparticle Drug-Eluting Stents Nanoparticle Gene-Eluting Stents
9.5.3  Stem Cell Transplant to the Brain
9.6 Multiple Sclerosis
9.6.1  Delivery of Methylprednisolone Across the Blood Brain Barrier
9.6.2  Cell therapy for MS
9.6.3  Treatment of MS Through Selective Repression of the Immune System
9.6.4  Nucleic Acid Therapeutics for the Treatment of MS   Gene therapy for MS   Antisense for MS ~ATL1102
9.7 Epilepsy
9.7.1  Methods of Delivery of Novel Antiepileptic Therapies   Nanocarrier Based Drug Delivery for Epilepsy   Prodrugs for Epilepsy   Targeting Anti-Epilepsy Drugs   Nasal Administration of Anti-Epilepsy Drugs   Intracerebral administration of Anti-Epilepsy Drugs
9.7.2  Cell Therapy of Epilepsy
9.7.3  Gene Therapy for Epilepsy
9.8 Migraine
9.8.1  Monoclonal Antibodies for the Prevention of Migraine

10.0 Targeted Drug Delivery to the Lung
10.1 Why Target the Lung?
10.2 Targeting Specific Lung Regions
10.3 Particle Size and Deposition
10.3.1  Small Molecules  Hydrophobic Small Molecules  Hydrophilic Small Molecules
10.3.2  Macromolecules
10.4 Nanoparticles
10.4.1  Delivery of Nanoparticles using Dry Powder Carriers
10.4.2  Delivery of Nanoparticles using Nebulisation
10.5 Targeting by Cell Surface Interactions
10.6 Nanoparticle Based Gene Delivery to Lungs

11.0 Targeted Drug Delivery to the Skin
11.1 Targeting Vaccines to the Skin
11.2 The Skin as an Immune Organ
11.2.1  Langerhans Cells- Epidermal Antigen Presenting Cells
11.2.2  Keratinocytes- Immune Competent Epithelial cells
11.2.3  Dendritic Epidermal T Cells (DETC) ?? T cells -Specialised Resident Epithelial Cells
11.2.4  Epidermotropic T lymphocytes-Circulating T Cells that home to the Epidermis
11.2.5  Melanocytes-Epidermal Pigment Cells With Immune Properties
11.3 Vaccine Delivery to the Skin
11.3.1  Dissolvable Microneedle Array
11.3.2  Electroporation for Administering DNA Vaccines
11.3.3  Microneedles for Transdermal Vaccine Delivery
11.3.4  Needle-Free Delivery of Vaccines
11.4 Applications for Transdermal Vaccination
11.4.1  HIV/AIDS Vaccine
11.4.2  Transdermal DNA Influenza Vaccine

12.0 Targeted Drug Delivery to The Retina
12.1 Structure of the Retina
12.2 Drug Delivery to the Retina
12.2.1  Systemic
12.2.2  Topical
12.2.3  Intravitreal Injection  Liposomes  Microspheres/Nanospheres  Microemulsions and Dendrimers  Verisome
12.2.4  Intravitreal Implants
12.2.5  Scleral Drug Delivery  Scleral plugs and Implants  Subconjunctival Injections
12.2.6  Suprachoroidal Drug Delivery  Microcatheter  Hollow Microneedles
12.2.7  Encapsulated Cell Technology  NT-501  NT-503
12.2.8  Sustained Release Refillable Options  MicroPump  Port Delivery System
12.3 Transporter Mediated Drug Delivery to the Retina
12.3.1  Strategies to Improve Ocular Bioavailability by Transporter Mediated Drug Delivery

13.0 Targeting The Colon
13.1 Achieving Site-Specific Drug Delivery to the Colon
13.1.1  Primary Approaches  pH Sensitive Drugs  Time Controlled Release Systems (TCRS)  Microbially Triggered  Prodrug Approach
13.1.2  Novel Approaches  Pressure Controlled Drug Delivery  Osmotic Controlled Drug Delivery (OROS-CT)  Novel Colon Targeted Delivery System (CODES™)

14.0 Global Market for Targeted Drug Delivery
14.1 Global Drug Delivery Market
14.2. Overview and Analysis
14.3 Advanced Drug Delivery Market by Geography
14.4 USA Drug Delivery Market
14.5 European Drug Delivery Market
14.6 Emerging Drug Delivery Markets
14.7 The Advanced Drug Delivery Landscape
14.8 Advanced Drug Delivery Market by Therapeutic Area
14.9 Cancer
14.10 Infectious Disease
14.11 Blood Brain Barrier Neurological
14.12 Lung
14.13 Skin
14.14 Colon
14.15 Retina
14.16 Advanced Drug Delivery Market By Technology

15.0 Company Business Profiles, Strategic Evaluation & Financial Analysis
15.1 Abbott/Abbvie
15.2 Adare Pharma
15.3 Allergan
15.4 Alza
15.5 American Biosciences
15.6 Amgen
15.7 Astellas/Gilead
15.8 Astra Zeneca
15.9 Auritec pharma
15.10 Avanti Polar Lipids
15.11 Bausch and Lomb
15.12 Bayer
15.13 BBB Therapeutics
15.14 Becton, Dickinson and Company
15.14 Berna Biotech
15.15 Bicycle Therapeutics
15.16 BioDelivery Sciences International
15.16 Biogen
15.17 Boston Scientific
15.18 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
15.19 BTG plc
15.20 Celsion Corp
15.x Cytogel Pharma
15.21 D-Pharm Ltd
15.22 Debiopharm
15.x Debiotech
15.23 Dendritech
15.24 Domantis/GSK
15.25 Eisai
15.x Eksigent
15.26 Encapsula nanosciences
15.27 Endo International
15.28 Enzon
15.29 f-star
15.x Flamel Technologies
15.30 Galectin Therapeutics
15.31 Genentech Inc.
15.32 Genmab AS
15.33 Genzyme
15.34 Gilead
15.35 GlaxoSmithKline
15.36 Icon Bioscience
15.37 ImmunoGen Inc.
15.38 Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc.
15.39 Insmed
15.40 Janssen Pharmaceuticals
15.41 King Pharma
15.42 Ligand/Chiva
15.43 Light Sciences Oncology
15.44 Eli Lilly and Co.
15.45 Merck
15.46 Nanocarrier
15.47 Neopharma
15.48 Northern lipids
15:49 Novartis
15.50 Pfizer
15.51 PharmAthene
15.52 Phosphorex
15.53 pSivida corp
15.54 Purdue
15.55 Roche
15.56 RP Scherer Int /BTG
15.57 Salix Pharma
15.58 Samyang biopharm
15.59 sigma-tau
15.60 Skyepharm ENDO
15.61 Spectrum Pharmaceuticals Inc.
15.62 Spectrum/Talon
15.63 Spherotech
15.64 Surmodics
15.65 Takeda
15.66 Terumo
15.67 TTY Biopharma
15.68 United Therapeutics
15.69 Zeneus (TEVA)
15.70 Zimmer Biomet

16.0 Current Targeted Drug Delivery Products on the Market

17.0 In-Depth SWOT Analysis of the Targeted Drug Delivery Market

17.1 Drivers of the Market
17.1.1  Will Patent Expirations and Introduction of New Technologies Drive the Short Term Market?
17.1.2 Increased Patient Compliance Rates
17.1.3 Increased Incidence of Chronic Conditions and Prevalence Rates
17.1.4 Increased Drug Administration Requirements
17.2 Restraints and Weaknesses of the Advanced and Targeted Drug Delivery Market
17.2.1  Technical Restraints
17.2.2  Drug Adverse Reactions
17.2.3  Drug Failures
17.3  Opportunities Within the Market Place
17.3.1  High Number of Pharmaco & Drug Delivery Company Collaboration
17.4 Challenges and Barriers to Market Entry

18.0 Future Developments and Outlook

Appendix 1: Further Reading & Bibliography    


List of Table

Table 1.1: Summary of Targeted Drug Delivery Market, Through 2021 28
Table 2.1: A Comparison of Release Obtained from Various Particulate Delivery Systems32
Table 2.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Targeted Drug Delivery 32
Table 2.3: Examples of Actively Targeted Micelles 34
Table 2.4: Examples of Passively Targeted Therapeutic Preparations of Polymeric Micelle 35
Table 2.5: Polymeric Nanoparticles Developed for Passive Delivery of Drugs for Cancer 36
Table 3.1: Advantages of Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery 38
Table 3.2: Ideal Drug Delivery Characteristics of Nanodrugs 38
Table 3.3: Sizes of Some Nanoconstructs used in Therapeutics and Diagnostics 39
Table 3.4: Examples of Nanomedicines Approved by One or More Regulatory Bodies 39
Table 3.5: Examples of Nanomedicines Approved by FDA 40
Table 3.6 Nanoparticle Cancer Therapeutics Undergoing Clinical Investigation 44
Table 3.7: Passive vs. Active Targeting 45
Table 3.8: Targets of Nanomedicines in Our Body 46
Table 3.9: Commonly Available Ligands in Drug Delivery 46
Table 3.10: Examples of Nanomedicine Applications 48
Table 3.11: Rationale for Nanotherapeutic Approach 49
Table 3.12: Commercially Available Nanotherapeutic Products for Oral Administration 50
Table 3.13: Commercially Available Nanotherapeutics for Parenteral Administration 51
Table 3.14: Examples of FDA-Approved Nanomedicines for Intravenous Route of Administration 52
Table 3.15: Examples of FDA-Approved Nanomedicines for Pulmonary Route of Administration 53
Table 3.16: Examples of FDA-Approved Nanomedicines for Subcutaneous, Intramuscular, Transdermal and Ocular Route of Administration 54
Table 3.17: Examples of Nano-Based Medical Devices and Diagnostics 55
Table 3.18: Different Types of Nanocarriers used in Formulating Nanomedicines 55
Table 3.19: Different Types of Synthesized Nanoforms used in Biomedical Field 56
Table 3.20: Use of Nanoparticles in Different Fields of Medicine 57
Table 3.21: Marketed Nanosystems for Cancer Treatment 57
Table 3.22: Synthetic Nanomaterials used in Tissue Engineering 58
Table 3.23: Natural Nanomaterials Used in Tissue Engineering 58
Table 3.24: Examples of NPs-Based Gene Delivery in Stem Cells 59
Table 3.25: Examples of Contrast Agents using Nanoparticles 59
Table 4.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Liposomes as Targeted Systems 61
Table 4.2: Classification of liposomes on the Basis of Size 62
Table 4.3: Classification of Liposomes on the Basis of Method of Preparation 63
Table 4.4: Sizes of Liposomes 63
Table 4.5: New Generation of Liposomes and their Features 64
Table 4.6: Benefits of Drug Loads in Liposomes 65
Table 4.7: Representative List of Liposome-Based Drugs68
Table 4.8: Liposome-Based Drugs for Cancer Therapy 69
Table 4.9: List of Liposomal Drugs in Clinical Trial 70
Table 4.10: Different Modifications in Liposomes for Improved Drug Delivery 71
Table 4.11: Approved Stealth Liposome Formulations 72
Table 4.12: Examples of Ligands used for Targeting of Liposomal Nanocarriers 73
Table 4.13: Examples of PEGylated Liposomes used for Active Targeting 74
Table 5.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Polymer-Based Carriers 76
Table 5.2: Various Stimuli and Responsive Polymeric Materials 77
Table 5.3: Various Smart Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems 77
Table 5.4: Applications of Thermosensitive Polymers for Drug Delivery Systems 78
Table 5.5: Classification, Representative Thermosensitive Polymers and their Applications 79
Table 5.6: Various Applications of pH Sensitive Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems 80
Table 5.7: Applications of Bioresponsive Polymers 80
Table 5.8: Examples of Natural Polymer-Based Topical Delivery Systems 81
Table 5.9: Examples of Topical Delivery Systems Based on Synthetic Polymers 82
Table 5.10: Clinically Approved Polymeric Nanomedicine for Cancer Treatment 82
Table 5.11: Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Therapeutics Undergoing Clinical Investigation 83
Table 6.1 Materials Used to Prepare Micelles and the Release Obtained from these Micelles 85
Table 6.2: Some Existing Approaches to Achieve Sustained Release from Micelle 87
Table 6.3 Examples of Stimuli-Responsive Micelles 88
Table 6.4: Passively-Targeted Therapeutic Formulations of Polymeric Micelle 89
Table 6.5: Examples of Actively Targeted Micelle 91
Table 6.6: Examples of Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Micelles 92
Table 6.7: Examples of Multifunctional Drug-Loaded Micelles 94
Table 6.8: Examples of Multifunctional siRNA-Loaded Micelles 95
Table 6.9: Representative List of Drug-Loaded Polymeric Micelle-Based Products 96
Table 7.3: List of Commercially Available Dendrimers and Dendrimer-Based Products 99
Table 7.4: Therapeutic Moities Studied using Dendrimers 99
Table 7.5: Types of Thermosensitive Dendrimers 101
Table 8.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Inorganic Nanoparticles 102
Table 8.2: Carbon-Based Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Agents 103
Table 8.3: Comparison between MWCNT and SWCNT 104
Table 8.4: Applications of Nanotubes as Artificial Implants 104
Table 8.5: Examples of Carbon Nanotubes used for the Detection of Cancer Biomarkers 105
Table 8.6: Examples of Drugs and Nucleic acids Delivered by Carbon Nanotubes 106
Table 8.7: Summary of Biomedical Applications of Fullerenes 108
Table 8.8: Drug and Gene Delivery Applications of GO-Based Vehicles 109
Table 8.9: Imaging Applications of Gold Nanoparticles 110
Table 8.10: Drug Delivery Applications of Gold Nanoparticles 111
Table 8.11: Diagnostic Applications of Gold Nanoparticles 111
Table 8.12: Types of Silica Nanoparticles with their Internal Structure and Pore Diameter 113
Table 8.13: Common Chemical Constituents used in the Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles 113
Table 8.14: Types of Drugs Delivered through Silica Nanoparticles 114
Table 8.15: Advantages and Disadvantages of Magnetic Particles115
Table 8.16: Magnetic Nanoparticles used in Biomedical Applications 116
Table 8.17: Examples of Coating Materials of Magnetic Nanoparticles 117
Table 8.18: Examples of Organic Linkers and their Applications in Magnetic Nanoparticles 117
Table 8.19: Commercially Available Magnetic Nanoparticles (Approved or in Clinical Trials) 119
Table 8.20: Clinical Trials Evaluating the Utility of Magnetic Nanoparticles as Diagnostics 120
Table 8.21: FDA/EMEA-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Contrast Agents 121
Table 9.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Cell-Based Systems122
Table 9.2: Comparison of RBCs with other Drug Delivery Systems 124
Table 9.3: Examples of Therapeutic Enzymes Encapsulated in Carrier RBCs 125
Table 9.4: Clinical and Experimental Therapies using MSCs for Neural-Related Diseases 126
Table 10.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Nucleic Acid/Peptide Carriers 127
Table 10.2: LHRH Agonists and New Generation Agonists Available in the Market 129
Table 10.3: Peptide Receptors having Potential in Cancer Therapy 130
Table 10.4: Types and Examples of Cell-Penetrating Peptides 131
Table 10.5: Peptides Applied in Cancer Diagnosis 132
Table 10.6: Examples of Peptides Applied in Treating Cancer 132
Table 10.7: Peptide-Based Vaccines in Development 133
Table 10.8: The Lone Approved Aptamer and other Aptamers in Development 134
Table 11.1: Current Targeted Drug Delivery Technologies for Cancer 136
Table 11.2: Categories and Examples of Tumor Antigens138
Table 11.3: Examples of FDA-Approved Targeted Cancer Therapies 139
Table 11.4: Selected Cancer Therapies in Late Stage Development 140
Table 11.5: A Representative List of Naked mAbs 143
Table 11.6: Representative List of Conjugated mAbs 144
Table 11.7: Approved Antibody ARCs and ADCs 145
Table 10.8: Representative List of Bispecific mAbs (bsAbs) 146
Table 11.9: mAbs by Indication Area 147
Table 11.10: Late Stage mAb Biosimilar Development Activity 147
Table 11.11: Number of Biosimilars of Monoclonal Antibodies in Development 148
Table 11.12: Ocular Applications of Dendrimer Drug Delivery Systems 149
Table 11.13: Applications of Liposomes for Ocular Diseases 150
Table 11.14: List of Micellar Formulation of Ocular Drugs for Ocular Drug Delivery 152
Table 11.15: Viral and Non-Viral Systems for Ocular Delivery of Genes 153
Table 11.16: Different Types of Drug Delivery Methods for CNS Protection 154
Table 11.17: Drug Delivery Approaches and Drug Molecules for Brain 154
Table 11.18: Examples of Nanoparticles (NPs) used for Delivery of Drugs across BBB 155
Table 11.19: Examples of Clinically-Approved NPs Therapeutics for CNS Disorders 156
Table 11.20: Examples of Nanoparticle-Based Therapeutics for CNS in Clinical Trials 156
Table 11.21: Examples of Drugs Delivered through PAMAM Dendrimers for CNS 157
Table 11.22: Liposomes for Antimicrobial Drug Delivery 158
Table 11.23: Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Drug Delivery 159
Table 11.24: Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Drug Delivery 159
Table 11.25: Dendrimers for Antimicrobial Drug Delivery 160
Table 11.26: Examples of Contrast-Enhancing Nanoparticles for Cardiovascular Imaging 161
Table 11.27 Therapeutic and Theranostic Nanoparticles for CVD 162
Table 11.28: Nano-Based In vivo CVD Sensors 162
Table 11.29: Examples of Drugs used for Pulmonary Delivery using Colloidal Carrier SelfAssembling Systems 163
Table 11.30: Examples of Polymers for Colloidal Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems 165
Table 11.31: Examples of Nebulizers with Novel Technologies 166
Table 11.32: Novel Dry Powder Inhalers Launched in the Past Decade 167
Table 11.33: Different API Molecules Incorporated into Different Nanoparticle Systems for Pulmonary Application 168
Table 11.34: Various Nano-Based Cosmeceutical Products in the Market 169
Table 12.1: Examples of Sustained Release Delivery Systems Studied in Glaucoma-Induced Preclinical Models 170
Table 12.2: Examples of Sustained Release Delivery Systems for Glaucoma that are Under Clinical Development 171
Table 12.3: Examples of FDA-Approved Ocular Drug Delivery Implants 171
Table 12.4: Delivery Systems Suitable for Sustained Trans-Scleral Drug Delivery for Retinal Disorders 172
Table 12.5: Examples of Drug Eluting Stents Available in the Market 173
Table 12.6: An Additional List of Polymer-Coated Stents 173
Table 13.1: Global Nanomedicines Market, Through 2021 177
Table 13.2: Global Nanomedicines Market by Therapeutic Area, Through 2021 179
Table 13.3: Global Targeted Drug Delivery Market, Through 2021 181
Table 13.4: Global Market for mAbs by Geography 182
Table 13.5: Global Market for Top Selling mAbs by Company, Class and Revenue Through 2021 183
Table 13.6: Global Market for Nano-Based Targeted Drug Delivery Market by Type, Through 2021 188
Table 13.7: Nanoparticles used in the Formulation of Ocular Drugs 189
Table 13.8: Liposomes used in the Formulation of Ocular Drugs 190
Table 13.9: Dendrimers Investigated for Ocular Drug Delivery 190
Table 13.10: Global Market for Ocular Drug Delivery, Through 2012 191
Table 13.11: Global Market for Ocular Drug Delivery by Geography, Through 2012 191
Table 13.12: Global Market for Drug Eluting Stents, Through 2021 192
Table 13.13: Global Market for Pulmonary Drug Delivery Technologies, Through 2021 193
Table 13.14: Global Market for Pulmonary Drug Delivery Technologies by Geography, Through 2021 194
Table 13.15: Hydrogel Systems with Polymers Examples for Oral Drug Delivery 198
Table 13.16: Examples of PEGylated Nanocarriers Studied in Rodent Models 199
Table 13.17: Cyclodextrins for Oral Drug Delivery 199
Table 13.18: Drugs Tested with Cyclodextrins for Rectal Delivery 200
Table 13.19: Drugs Tested with Cyclodextrins for Nasal Delivery 200
Table 13.20: Drugs Tested with Cyclodextrins for Transdermal Delivery 201
Table 13.21: Drugs Tested with Cyclodextrins for Ocular Drug Delivery 201
Table 13.22: Drugs Tested with Cyclodextrins for Controlled Drug Delivery 201
Table 14.1: Ablynx’s Clinical Programs 205
Table 14.2: Aciont’s Product Pipeline 207
Table 14.3: Alchemia’s Product Pipeline212
Table 14.4: Alkermes’ Product Pipeline 213
Table 14.5: Alnylam’s Product Pipeline 216
Table 14.6: AmpliPhi’s Product Pipeline217
Table 14.7: Angiochem’s Product Pipeline 220
Table 14.8: AGTC’s Product Pipeline 223
Table 14.9: Aradigm’s Product Pipeline 224
Table 14.10: Armagen’s Lysogen Storage Disorder Pipeline 226
Table 14.11: Armagen’s Neurodegenerative Pipeline 227
Table 14.12: Arrowhead’s Pipeline 228
Table 14.13: Asklepios’ Product Pipeline 231
Table 14.14: Audentes’ Product Pipeline233
Table 14.15: Avalanche’s Product Pipeline 233
Table 14.16: BBB’s Product Pipeline 237
Table 14.17: BIND Therapeutics’ Intellectual Property 241
Table 14.18: Camurus’ Product Pipeline 247
Table 14.19: Celsion’s Pipeline 249
Table 14.20: Cerulean’s Product Pipeline 251
Table 14.21: Copernicus’ Product Pipeline 253
Table 14.22: CureVac’s Product Pipeline 255
Table 14.23: Discovery Lab’s Product Pipeline 261
Table 14.24: DURECT’s Product Pipeline 264
Table 14.25: Ensyce’s Product Pipeline 266
Table 14.26: Overview of EryTech’s Development Projects 269
Table 14.27: EryTech’s Financial Data 269
Table 14.28: Esperance’s Product Pipeline 270
Table 14.29: Exicure’s Product Pipeline 271
Table 14.30 GenVec’s Product Pipeline 276
Table 14.31: Glide’s Development Programs 278
Table 14.32: Heron’s Product Pipeline 279
Table 14.33: iCeutica’s Pain & Inflammation Product Pipeline 282
Table 14.34: iCeutica’s Oncology Drug Pipeline 282
Table 14.35: iCeutica’s Respiratory Drug Pipeline 283
Table 14.36: iCeutica’s Migraine Drug Pipeline 283
Table 14.37: ImmusanT’s Product Pipeline 284
Table 14.38: InDex’s Product Pipeline 284
Table 14.39: Immune Design’s Product Pipeline 285
Table 14.40: Immunocore’s Product Pipeline 286
Table 14.41: Inovio’s Product Pipeline 287
Table 14.42: Insight Vision’s Product Pipeline 288
Table 14.43: Insmed’s Product Pipeline 288
Table 14.44: Intezyne’s Pipeline290
Table 14.45: LipimetiX’s Product Pipeline 292
Table 14.46: LiPlasome’s Pipeline 292
Table 14.47: Lipocine’s Product Pipeline 293
Table 14.48: Lipotek’s R&D Program 295
Table 14.49: Madison’s Product Pipeline 297
Table 14.50: Mersana’s Product Pipeline299
Table 14.51: Milo’s Product Pipeline 302
Table 14.52: miRagen’s Product Pipeline 302
Table 14.53: MultiVir’s Product Pipeline 306
Table 14.54: Nanocarrier’s Product Pipeline 309
Table 14.55: Nanotherapeutics’ Product Pipeline 314
Table 14.56: NanoViricides’ Product Pipeline 316
Table 14.57: Nektar’s Approved Products 317
Table 14.58: Nektar’s Product Pipeline 318
Table 14.59: Neos Therapeutics’ Product Candidates 320
Table 14.60: NOD’s Product Pipeline 321
Table 14.61: Oxford Biomedica’s Product Pipeline 328
Table 14.62: PDS’ Product Pipeline 328
Table 14.63: PharmaIN’s Product Pipeline 330
Table 14.64: PhaseRx’s Product Pipeline 330
Table 14.65: pSivida’s Product Pipeline 337
Table 14.66: Pulmatrix’s Product Pipeline 338
Table 14.67: Quark’s Pipeline of Products 340
Table 14.68: RaNA’s Product Pipeline 341
Table 14.69: RegeneRx’s Product Pipeline 342
Table 14.70: Regenxbio’s Product Pipeline 343
Table 14.71: Renova Therapeutics’ Product Pipeline 344
Table 14.72: Replicor’s Phase II Proof of Concept Clinical Study Pipeline 345
Table 14.73: Replicor’s Regulatory Pipeline 346
Table 14.74: RJS Biologics’ Product Pipeline 348
Table 14.75: Sarfez’s Product Pipeline 350
Table 14.76: Savara’s Product Pipeline 350
Table 13.77: Serin’a Pipeline 353
Table 14.78: Silence’s Product Pipeline 354
Table:14.79: Silenseed’s Product Pipeline 355
Table 14.80: Sylentis’ Product Pipeline 356
Table 14.81: Spark’s Product Pipeline 358
Table 14.82: Transgene’s Product Pipeline 368
Table 14.83: Vect-Horus’ Product Pipeline 369
Table 14.84: Vectura’s Pipeline Assets 372
Table 14.85: Vicas’ Product Pipeline 373
Table 14.86: Voyager’s Product Pipeline373
Table 14.87: WAVE’s Product Pipeline 374
Table 14.88: Xel’s Pipeline 376
Table 14.89: Xenetic Biosciences’ Product Pipeline 377
Table 14.90: Xigen’s Product Pipeline 378
Table 14.91: Zealand Pharma’s Product Pipeline 379
Table 14.92: Zozano’s Product Pipeline 380


List of Chart

Figure 1.1: Summary of Targeted Drug Delivery Market, Through 2021 28
Figure 2.1: Conventional and Ideal Drug Release Profiles 31
Figure 2.2: Schematic Representation of Active Targeting 33
Figure 2.3: Diagrammatic Representation of Passive Targeting 34
Figure 3.1: Internalization of Nanomedicine 47
Figure 3.2: Conceptual Visualization of a Future Multifunctional Nanomedicine 48
Figure 4.1: Classication and Type of Liposomes 62
Figure 4.2: Diagrammatic Representation of a Liposome 64
Figure 4.3: Drug Loading Efficiency of Liposomes 66
Figure 4.4: Intracellular Delivery by pH-Sensitive and Plain Liposomes 67
Figure 4.5: Schematic Diagram of a Stealth Liposome 71
Figure 4.6: Schematic of Tumor Targeting Multifunctional Liposome 72
Figure 4.7: Stimuli Sensitive Multifunctional Targeted Liposome with Low pH Degradable Bonds 74
Figure 5.1: Delivery of Drugs by Polymers 76
Figure 6.1: Schematic Diagram Showing Micelle Formation 85
Figure 6.2: Drug-Loaded Polymeric Micelles with Various Targeting Functions 90
Figure 6.3: A Hypothetical Polymeric Micelle 93
Figure 7.1: Three-Dimensional Structure of Dendrimers 97
Figure 7.2: Dendrimers as Multifunctional Nanoplatforms 98
Figure 8.1: Mechanism of Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon Nanotubes 103
Figure 8.2: Trimetalic Nitride Endoherdral Metallofullerene and Empty Cage Fullerene C70 107
Figure 8.3: Schematic Illustration of Preparation, Drug Loading and Drug Delivery by GO 108
Figure 8.4 AuNPs with Conjugated Drug 109
Figure 8.5: Shaped of Gold Nanoparticles 110
Figure 8.6: Drug Carrying Ability of Silica Nanoparticles 112
Figure 8.7: A Typical Design of a Magnetic Nanoparticle 116
Figure 8.8: Shematic Representation of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Surface Modifications 118
Figure 8.9: Conceptual Representation of MNP Tumor Targeting119
Figure 9.1: Schematic Representation of Dendritic Cells Expressing a Number of Different Cell Surface Receptors which are Targets for Antigen Targeting Therapies 123
Figure 9.2: Therapeutic Sites and Targets Accessible for RBC-Delivered Drugs 124
Figure 9.3: Procedure of Encapsulating Bacterial Ghost with Drugs 126
Figure 10.1: Different Possible Treatment Options of Cancer Using Peptides 128
Figure 10.2: Schematic of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) 128
Figure 10.3: Mechanism of Action of Peptide-Based Cancer Vaccines 130
Figure 10.4: Schematic Diagram of Aptamer Binding to its Target 134
Figure 10.5: Schematic Diagram of Nanobot for Targeted Drug Delivery 135
Figure 11.1: Tumor-Associated Antigens (TAA) 137
Figure 11.2: mAbs binding to Cancer Cells 141
Figure 11.3: Binding of Naked mAbs to the Antigens on Cancer Cells 142
Figure 11.4: Schematic Representation of Conjugated mAb 143
Figure 11.5: Binding of Radiolabeled mAbs to the Cancer Cells 144
Figure 11.6: A Bispecific mAb 145
Figure 11.7: Annual U.S./E.U. Approvals of mAbs as of 2015 146
Figure 11.8: Schematic Illustration of Formation of Spherical Micelle and Drug Encapsulation 151
Figure 12.1: Microchip Developed by Microchip Biotech 174
Figure 13.1: Application of Nanotechnology in Healthcare 176
Figure 13.2: Types of Nanomedicine Companies177
Figure 13.3: Global Market for Nanomedicines by Geography, Through 2021 178
Figure 13.4: Global Market for Nanomedicines by Major Therapeutic Areas, Through 2021 179
Figure 13.5: Global Targeted Drug Delivery Market, Through 2021 181
Figure 13.6: Global Market for mAbs by Geography 182
Figure 13.7: Global Market for Humira, Remicade and Avastin, Throug 2021 184
Figure 13.8: Global Market for Rituxan, Soliris and Herceptin, Through 2021 185
Figure 13.9: Global Market for Kadcyla, Perjeta and Lucentis, Through 2021 186
Figure 13.10: Global Market for Xgeva/Prolia, Stelara and Tysarbi, Through 2021 187
Figure 13.11: Market for Nano-Based Targeted Drug Delivery Systems by Type, Through 2021 188
Figure 13.12: Global Market for Novel Ocular Drug Formulations and Implants, Through 2021 191
Figure 13.13: Global Market for Drug Eluting Stents by Geography, Through 2021 193
Figure 13.14: Global Market for Pulmonary Drug Delivery Technologies, Through 2021 194
Figure 14.1: Conventional and Heavy Chain Antibodies 205
Figure 14.2: Restoration of P53 Activity by Stapled Peptide Dual Inhibitor 210
Figure 14.3: Andros’ Topical Delivery System 218
Figure 14.4: Andros’ Gene Delivery System 219
Figure 14.5: Buccal and Oral Delivery of Peptides by Means of ArisCrown 225
Figure 14.6: BBB Therapeutics’ G-Technology 237
Figure 14.7: Components of Accurins 241
Figure 14.8: Celsion’s LTLD Technology 248
Figure 14.9: Mechanism of Action of Cerulean’s NDCs 251
Figure 14.10: Mechanism of Action of EDV Nanocells 265
Figure 14.11: EryDel’s Technology of Encapsulating Drugs into Erythrocytes 267
Figure 14.12: ERY-ASP’s Mode of Action 268
Figure 14.13: Biochronomer Technology 279
Figure 14.14: IVECT Method of Targeted Drug Delivery289
Figure 14.15: Improved Absorption Enabled by Lip’ral Technology 294
Figure 14.16: Nanocarrier’s Platform Technology 308
Figure 14.17: Diagrammatic Description of NanoOncology’s Technology 311
Figure 14.18: Neos Therapeutics’ Ion Exchange Process 319
Figure 14.19: Mechanism of Action of Betalutin 323
Figure 14.20: Diagrammatic Representation of PGC 329
Figure 14.21: PolyActiva’s Drug Polymer Conjugate 332
Figure 14.22: Interaction between Phosphorothioated NAPs and Amphipathic Protein Targets 345
Figure 14.23: The Making of Pendent POZ 352
Figure 14.24: The Making of Pendent POZ-Therapeutics 353
Figure 14.25: Diagrammatic Structure of Nano-Emulsion 362
Figure 14.26: Diagrammatic Structure of Polymeric Micelle 363
Figure 14.27: Diagramatic Representation of Drug Loading in NanoX 363
Figure 14.28: Diagrammatic Representation of the Specificity of Immunoliposomes 364
Figure 14.29: Xigen’s ICPT Technology 378


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