2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is an oxidized furan derivative. It is an important renewable organic compound which can be used as a substitute for terephthalic acid (PTA) in the production of polyesters. FDCA can be synthesized in four stages viz. dehydrahation of hexose derivatives, oxidation of 2, 5-disubstituted furans, catalytic conversions of various furan derivatives and biological conversion of HMF. In addition, FDCA is detected in human unrine. A human body produces 3-5 mg/day. 2, 5 furandicarboxylic acid is also known as dehydromucic acid. FDCA is a stable compound with high melting point. Synthesis of FDCA is a patented process.
FDCA is expected to be a potential substitute for petroleum derived chemicals such as terephthalic acid, adipic acid, phthalic anhydride and bisphenol A among others. PET, polyamides, polyester polyols and others are expected to be the application segments of FDCA with PET and PBT being the application segments. There are a very few companies producing 2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid primarily for scientific purposes. The current estimated production of FDCA is around 4 metric MT a year with revenue of USD 10 million.
FDCA has applications in pharmacology. Additionally, FDCA derived anilides exhibit strong anti-bacterial action. Furthermore, HMF is metabolized via FDCA in mammals including humans. A diluted solution of FDCA is used for preparing artificial veins for transplantation. Moreover, 2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid can be used as an ingredient of fire foams which help to extinguish fires in a short time caused by polar and non-polar solvents. The FDCA monomer offers opportunities to create a variety of polymers such as polyesters, polyamides and polyurethanes, plasticizers and coating resins.
FDCA is used in making polyesters, PEF fibers, PEF films and polyamides among others. Thus, the growing packaging industry coupled with the increasing demand for engineering plastics and coating resins, is expected to boost the FDCA market substantially within the forecast period. However, there are very few companies which procure and sell FDCA as there is no economic viability behind its usage. Research and development including development of cost effective oxidation technology FDCA formation may open new avenues for the 2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid market.
In 2011, Avantium produced 40 ton/year of FDCA monomer at a pilot plant for scientific applications. In addition, it has also developed a cost-effective route to produce FDCA. Moreover, Avantium is currently working in collaboration with the Coca Cola Company, ALPLA and Danone to make 100% biobased PEF bottles in the market with the help of FDCA. The company is expected to open its first commercial purpose FDCA plant with a capacity of 300-500 kilo tons by 2016. .
Europe dominated the 2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid market in 2012. Avatium Technologies B.V headquartered in Netherlands has been the major company contributing to the FDCA market. Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing market on account of the high demand for packaging in this region owing to the rising disposable income. Emerging economies in South America, the Middle East and Africa are expected to witness substantial growth on account of the industrial development taking place in these regions. In addition, the growing population and disposable income is expected to fuel the 2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid market within the forecast period.
Some of the key players in the 2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid market are Avantium Technologies B.V, Satachem Co.Ltd., Synbias , Carbone Scientific Tokyo Chemical Industry, V & V Pharma Industries, Chemsky and Good Scents Company among others. There are a very few companies producing 2, 5 Furandicarboxylic acid. These companies produce FDCA primarily for scientific purposes.
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