Water shortage is biggest problem that is being faced by all developing as well as developed countries. Over the next few coming years, the shortage of water is expected to increase. Water desalination is a process of extracting clean water through the process of removing salt or saline from the salt water bodies. Desalination has now been practiced on large scale for more than 60 years. Continuous technological advancements have made this process more efficient and effective. The degree of salinity in the water is directly associated with the cost of desalination. Global corporations are selling and buying water rights at an extraordinary rate. Desalination equipment markets are majorly relevant to dry countries such as Australia and UAE which conventionally rely on the rainfall collection for providing drinking water.
Some of the major drivers for the escalation in the desalination equipment market are industrial development, climate change and rising population across the globe. The demand of water for serving different purposes seems to be the key driver for the growth of this market. Additional cost and development of supporting infrastructure for desalination system are the major constraints for the desalination equipment market. Industrialization, urbanization and scarcity of fresh water bring new opportunities for the market players.
The water desalination equipment market can be segmented on the basis of the technology used in the desalination process. The equipment market can be broadly classified into distillation processes and membrane processes. Distillation process is further divided into multi-stage flash, multi-effect evaporation and vapor compression. Multi stage flash units are broadly used in African and Middle East region and accounts for nearly 40-45% of total world’s desalination capacity. This process involves evaporation and condensation of water. Both of these processes are coupled in the multi stage flash, so that the latent heat from evaporation process can be recovered for preheating the inlet water. Multi effect evaporation process is the outdated version of the multi stage flash units. Multi effect evaporation was replaced by multi stage evaporation due the problem with the heat transfer tubes. Vapor compression process relies on the reduced pressure operation to coerce evaporation. Vapor compression process is normally used for small and medium installations.
Membrane processes are further segmented into reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Reverse osmosis recovers clean water from a saline solution that is pressurized to a point greater than the osmotic pressure of the solution. The membrane restricts the salt ion from the saline water through a membrane. Reverse osmosis also removes the dissolved gases and stabilizes the pH value of the fresh water by the addition of Na and Ca salts. Electrodialysis process utilizes direct current and flow channels separated by alternative cation and anion membrane to achieve the separation of water from the dissolved salts. Electrodialysis is used only for removing ionic component from the saline water.
Desalination is currently used in those countries that have an extreme scarcity of water and have enough financial aid to fund it. The Middle East holds the top spot for desalination water due to several countries large facilities including Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Israel. The technology is expected to increase particularly in India and China in Asia Pacific region as the demand for fresh water is increasing because of urbanization and industrialization. In North American region, continuous developing plans for large desalination plants in California and Texas brings opportunities for the investors.
Some of the key players in the water desalination equipment market are Doosan Heavy Industries and Co., Hyflux Ltd, General Electrics, Genesis Water Technologies, Metito, Septech and IVRCL limited.
This research report analyzes this market depending on its market segments, major geographies, and current market trends. Geographies analyzed under this research report include
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Rest of the World
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