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Transparent Conductive Films (TCF) 2014-2024: Forecasts, Markets, Technologies

IDTechEx
Published Date » 2013-09-19
No. Of Pages » 285

The transparent conducive film and glass markets are complex and fragmented along many application lines. The market is booming with growth being fuelled mostly by tablets and penetration of touch capability in more mobile phones, notebooks and monitors. OLED lighting, OPV and DSSCs are also potentially large area markets, although growth here will initially be slow due to strong competition, prevailing unfavourable market conditions, and low technology market-readiness levels.

New market drivers

The market is fast being transformed. New applications and market trends are changing the requirement landscape, and in many instances stretching it beyond what the incumbent solution can readily achieve. The key drivers are market tendencies towards (a) large-sized devices, (b) low power consumption, (c) minimal reflection, (d) thinness, (e) robustness and/or flexibility, (f) ease of patterning, (g) simplified value chain, and (h) low cost.
 
A vast multitude of technologies and players worldwide are emerging and/or re-positioning to fight for a slice of this booming yet intensely competitive market space. These technologies include silver nanowires, organic transparent conductors, carbon nanotubes, graphene, fine wire, and a variety of metal mesh and novel nanoparticle-based solutions.
 
Complex range of options

The multiplicity of options is giving rise to market uncertainty and confusion. Indeed, the decision-making and investment process is made more complex by the fact that there is no one-size-fits-all solution and/or a clear winner. This is because each technology option presents several trade-offs between sheet resistance, transmittance, flexibility, haze, cost and compatibility with existing value chain; while each players is working off a different business plan and technology portfolio/capability.

Full analysis and assessment

This report provides a detailed and complete assessment of incumbent and emerging technology solutions. For each technology, IDTechEx assess production method, key cost drives, key figures-of-merit including sheet resistance, optical transmission, haze, flexibility, surface smoothness, stability, etc. IDTechEx provides a SWOT analysis for each technology. Moreover, IDTechEx identifies all suppliers globally, outlining their commercialisation progress.
 
IDTechEx has built a detailed, granular and accurate market forecast model. IDTechEx has used its forecast model to provide the following key market data charts...
 
Ten year forecasts for the following applications in unit sales or market value:

  • Mobile and smart phones
  • Notebooks and touch notebooks
  • Montiors and touch monitors
  • Tablets
  • OLED lighting
  • Organic phototovotaics
  • Dye-sensitised solar cells
  • Electroluminescent displays
 
Ten year market forecasts for TCF and TCG by area and value for the above applications.
 
Ten year market forecasts in area, market share, and value for the following technologies:

  • ITO-on-Glass
  • ITO-on-PET
  • Silver nanowires
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Graphene
  • PEDOT
  • Metal mesh
  • Market intelligence
TABLE OF CONTENT

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1. Key trends
1.2. Technology Assessment

2. MARKETS ANALYSIS
2.1. Smart Phones
2.2. Tablets
2.3. Notebooks
2.4. Monitors
2.5. Mobile, tablet, notebook, monitor and TV displays
2.6. OLED lighting
2.7. OPV and DSSCs
2.8. Electroluminescent Displays
2.9. Key market forecasts
2.10. Players

3. OVERVIEW OF TOUCH TECHNOLOGIES

4. TARGET MARKETS- PERFORMANCE TARGETS, MARKET DRIVERS, AND MARKET DYNAMICS
4.2. Smart phones and tablets
4.3. Notebooks and monitors
4.4. OLED, OPV, DSSC
4.5. Other thin film
4.6. LCD Displays
4.7. Transparent heaters
4.8. EMI shielding
4.9. Summary

5. KEY MARKET DRIVERS AND CHANGING LANDSCAPE
5.1. Large- sized devices
5.2. Current-driven devices
5.3. Flexibility
5.4. Cost
5.5. Low power consumption

6. TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS
6.1. Indium tin oxide
6.1.2. Large area
6.1.3. Index-Matching
6.1.4. Cost
6.1.5. Thinness
6.1.6. SWOT analysis
6.1.7. Current uses
6.1.8. Future uses
6.1.9. Players
6.2. Non-ITO oxides
6.3. Silver nanowires
6.3.2. SWOT analyses
6.3.3. Current uses
6.3.4. Future trends and market drivers
6.3.5. Players
6.4. Graphene
6.4.2. SWOT analyses
6.4.3. Current uses
6.4.4. Future trends and market drives
6.4.5. Players
6.5. Carbon nanotubes
6.5.2. SWOT analyses
6.5.3. Current uses
6.5.4. Future trends and market drives
6.5.5. Players
6.5.6. PDOT:PSS
6.5.7. SWOT analyses
6.5.8. Current uses
6.5.9. Future trends and market drives
6.5.10. Players
6.6. Metal Mesh
6.6.2. Direct printing
6.6.3. SWOT analyses
6.6.4. Current uses
6.6.5. Future trends
6.6.6. Players
6.6.7. Embossing/Imprinting
6.6.8. SWOT analyses
6.6.9. Current uses
6.6.10. Future trends
6.6.11. Players
6.6.12. Photolithography and etching
6.6.13. SWOT analyses
6.6.14. Current uses
6.6.15. Future trends
6.6.16. Players
6.6.17. Summary of metal mesh TCF
6.7. Micro fine wire
6.7.1. SWOT analyses
6.7.2. Current uses
6.7.3. Future Trends
6.7.4. Players
6.8. Other nanotechnology-enabled TCFs
6.8.2. Players
6.9. Benchmarking

7. MARKET SHARE, GROWTH RATES AND SIZES BY APPLICATION
7.1. Key conclusions
7.2. Smart phones (touch)
7.3. Tablets (touch)
7.4. Notebooks (touch)
7.5. Monitors (touch)
7.6. Mobile, tablet, notebook, monitor and TV displays
7.7. OLED Lighting
7.8. Organic photovoltaics
7.9. Dye Sensitised Solar Cells
7.10. Electroluminescent displays
7.11. Market growth rate and size by technology
7.12. Averages selling point projections
7.13. Graphene
7.14. Carbon nanotubes
7.15. Metal mesh
7.16. Silver nanowires
7.17. ITO on PET
7.18. ITO on Glass
7.19. PEDOT

8. COMPANY INTERVIEWS
8.1. Arkema
8.2. Blue Nano
8.3. Bluestone Global Tech
8.4. Cambrios
8.5. Canatu
8.6. Carestream
8.7. Cima Nanotech
8.8. ClearJet
8.9. Dai Nippon Printing
8.10. Displax Interactive Systems
8.11. Goss International Americas
8.12. Graphene Laboratories
8.13. Graphene Square
8.14. Heraeus
8.15. Nanogap
8.16. Nanotech and Beyond
8.17. O-Film
8.18. Peratech
8.19. PolyIC
8.20. Poly-Ink
8.21. Rolith
8.22. Seashell Technology
8.23. Showa Denko
8.24. Sinovia Technologies
8.25. SouthWest NanoTechnologies
8.26. Unidym
8.27. UniPixel
8.28. University of Exeter
8.29. Visual Planet
8.30. XinNano Materials
8.31. Zytronic

9. COMPANY PROFILES
9.1. Agfa-Gevaert
9.2. 3M
9.3. Atmel
9.4. C3Nano
9.5. Chasm Technologies
9.6. Cheil Industries
9.7. Chimei Innolux
9.8. Chisso Corp.
9.9. Conductive Inkjet Technologies (Carlco)
9.10. Dontech Inc.
9.11. Duke University
9.12. Eastman Kodak
9.13. Eikos
9.14. ELK
9.15. Evaporated Coatings Inc.
9.16. Evonik
9.17. Fujifilm Ltd
9.18. Fujitsu
9.19. Gunze Ltd
9.20. Hitachi Chemical
9.21. Holst Center
9.22. Iljin Display
9.23. Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (ICES), Singapore
9.24. Join Well Technology Company Ltd.
9.25. J-Touch
9.26. KAIST
9.27. Komoro
9.28. KPT Shanghai Keyan Phosphor Technology Co. Ltd.
9.29. Lee Tat Industrial Development (LTI) Ltd
9.30. LG Chem
9.31. Maxfilm
9.32. Mianyang Prochema Plastics Co., Ltd.
9.33. Mirae/MNTec
9.34. Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc., Mitsui Ltd., Japan
9.35. Mutto Optronics
9.36. Nagase Corporation
9.37. Nanopyxis
9.38. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
9.39. National University of Singapore (NUS)
9.40. Nicanti
9.41. Nitto Denko
9.42. Oike & CO., Ltd.
9.43. Oji Paper Group
9.44. Panipol Ltd
9.45. Perceptive Pixel
9.46. Polychem UV/EB
9.47. Power Booster
9.48. Rice University
9.49. Samsung Electronics, Korea
9.50. Sang Bo Corporation (SBK), Korea
9.51. Sekisui Nano Coat Technology Ltd
9.52. Sheldahl
9.53. Sigma-Aldrich
9.54. Sony Corporation
9.55. Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Inc.
9.56. Suzutora
9.57. TDK
9.58. Teijin Kasei America, Inc. / Teijin Chemical
9.59. Top Nanosys
9.60. Toray Advanced Film (TAF)
9.61. Toyobo
9.62. UCLA
9.63. Unidym
9.64. University of Michigan
9.65. VisionTek Systems Ltd.
9.66. Young Fast Optoelectronics

List of Tables


1.1.Benchmarking different TCF and TCG technologies on the basis of sheet resistance, optical transmission, ease of customisation, haze, ease of patterning, thinness, stability, flexibility, reflection and low cost. The technology com
6.1.Summary of deposition technologies used by each metal mesh producer
6.2.Benchmarking different TCF and TCG technologies on the basis of sheet resistance, optical transmission, ease of customisation, haze, ease of patterning, thinness, stability, flexibility, reflection and low cost. The technology com
7.1.Average selling prices for different technologies as a function of year between 2013 and 2023 in $/m2
7.2.Ten year market forecast for graphene adoption in transparent conductive film and glass markets (US$ million)

List of Figures



2.1.Ten year market forecasts in million USD for TCFs and TCGs by application
2.2.Ten year market forecast in million USD for TCFs and TCGs by application
2.3.Ten-year market forecast in Km sqm for TCFs and TCGs broken by technology
2.4.Ten-year market forecast in million USD for TCFs and TCGs broken by technology
3.1.Types of touch technology
4.1.The typical sheet resistance values used in different applications such as touch screens, smart windows, LCDs, OLED, and solar cells
4.2.Ten year forecast for mobile phone and smart phone sales
4.3.Tablets sales as a function of year between 2013 and 2023
4.4.Sales of standard and touch notebooks as a function of year between 2013 and 2023. Market share for touch notebooks as a function of year in the total notebook market
4.5.Sales of standard and touch monitors as a function of year between 2013 and 2023. Market share for touch monitor as a function of year in the total monitor market
4.6.OLED lighting market size as a function of year between 2013 and 2013 in million USD
4.7.OPV and DSSC market size as a function of year between 2013 and 2013 in million USD
4.8.Structure of TFT-LCD devices including the position of the transparent conducting layers
4.9.Structure of a typical LCD backplane layout
4.10.Comparing the change in temperature as a function of heating time between an ITO and a self-assembled nanoparticle transparent heater
5.1.Touch capability is coming onto ever larger screens
5.2.Figure title needed
6.1.A typical sputtering apparatus used in deposing ITO thin films
6.2.Optical transmission as a function of sheet resistance for ITO-on-PET sold by main industry suppliers
6.3.Sheet resistance as a function of thickness for sputtered ITO on glass
6.4.Optical transmission as a function of wavelength (nm) for ITO on glass with different sheet resistances
6.5.Different touch sensor configurations
6.6.Cost of ITO transparent conductive films compared to CNT ones
6.7.Normalised conductance as a function of radius
6.8.Schematic showing the bending experiment carried out on ITO-on-PET
6.9.Flexible, thin, and light ITO on PET
6.10.ITO cracking when bent too much and/or too many times
6.11.Sheet resistance as a function of radius of curvature
6.12.Efficiency of two OPV cells as a function of cells size
6.13.Comparing a complicated touch solution based on ITO with a simple version based on CNTs
6.14.Price of primary indium as a function of year
6.15.Market share of the total global production of primary indium by country
6.16.Total annual indium consumption as a function of year
6.17.Sheet resistance as a function of thickness for different TCF technologies
6.18.ITO on film production capacity worldwide
6.19.Images of silver nanowire networks with different surface coverage levels
6.20.Change in optical transmission as a function of surface coverage
6.21.A simplified schematic of a manufacturing process flow
6.22.Transmission as a function of sheet resistance
6.23.Sheet resistance as a function of bending angle
6.24.Transparent silver nanowire TCF
6.25.Flexible roll of silver nanowire coated films used as a transparent EMI shield
6.26.Commodity price of silver as a function of year between 1976 and 2013
6.27.All-in-One LG monitors using silver nanowires
6.28.Huawei smart phone with Cambrios's silver nanowires
6.29.Process for manufacturing graphene using the chemical vapour deposition technique
6.30.Process flow for a typical transfer process of graphene from a copper substrate and onto a polymer sheet
6.31.The process flow for transferring graphene from Cu substrates using self-release layers
6.32.Process flow for transfer graphene from a Cu substrate using a bubbling process
6.33.Example of large-sized cylindrical copper furnace
6.34.Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for best laboratory scale graphene derived using the oxidation-reduction techniques (it produces powders)
6.35.Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for best laboratory scale graphene derived using CVD (it produces sheets)
6.36.Sheet resistance as a function of transmission for graphene compared with ITO
6.37.Sheet resistance as a function of thickness for different TCF technologies
6.38.Sheet resistance as a function of bending angle for graphene, CNT and ITO films
6.39.Flexible graphene transparent conductive sheet
6.40.Patent filing by company or institution and by patent authority 2012
6.41.Prototype of a graphene-enabled touch sensor
6.42.Prototype of a large-sized graphene transparent conductive film
6.43.Types and quality of CNTs
6.44.Single-walled carbon nanotube schematic
6.45.Single-walled carbon nanotube - real image
6.46.Steps required to separate the SWCNTs into pure semiconducting or metallic ones
6.47.The deposition roll process
6.48.CNT networks without full surface coverage
6.49.High concentration of CNTs on a surface
6.50.Sheet resistance as a function of optical tranmission
6.51.Sheet resistance of laboratory scale purified SWCNT
6.52.Sheet resistance of SWNTs vs. MWNTs
6.53.Sheet resistance of SWCNTs deposited using different techniques
6.54.Variations in sheet resistance as a function of bending cycle
6.55.CNT film applied to a 3D surface
6.56.Comparing the stack complexity and calculated reflection of CNT-based and ITO-based TCFs
6.57.Example of CNT TFC-based mobile phone
6.58.Example of CNT transparent conductive film
6.59.Example of flexible CNT transpatenc conductive film
6.60.Example of flexible CNT transpatenc conductive film
6.61.Chemical structure of PDOT:PSS
6.62.Schematic picture of a dispersed gel particle
6.63.A process flow for patterning PDOT:PSS using photolithography and CELVIOSTM etchant
6.64.A process flow for patterning PDOT:PSS using gravure (or screen) printing and CELVIOSTM etchant
6.65.Comparing the performance of ITO on foil (similar to ITO on PET) with PEDOT:PSS in 2002
6.66.Optical transmission (%) as a function of wavelength for different grades of PDOT:PSS on glass
6.67.Improvements in performance of PDOT:PSS
6.68.Improvement in conductivity for PDOT:PSS has a function of year
6.69.Optical transmission as a function of sheet resistance for PDOT:PSS/PET films (here referred to as Baytron) compared with common ITO-on-PET films on the market
6.70.Optical transmission (%) of PDOT/PET and PET as a function of wavelength (screen printed PDOT)
6.71.Relative changes in sheet resistance as a function of number of bending cycles (bending radius 8mm) for ITO/PET and PDOT:PSS/PET films
6.72.Changes in sheet resistance as a function of radius of curvature for ITO/PET and PEDOT:PSS/PET films
6.73.Sheet resistance as a function distance from fixed point in PDOT:PSS films
6.74.Silver nanowires, metal mesh ad PDOT
6.75.Change in sheet resistance as a function of exposure time to effective sunlight
6.76.A Navigation system with a resistive touch technology (continous film) incorporating PDOT:Fil
6.77.A laptop incorporating a PDOT:PSS as the sensing layer and resistive touch technology
6.78.A small-sized capacitive tocuh sensor using PDOT:PSS
6.79.Various touch-enabled mobile front covers incorporating PDOT:PSS
6.80.An OLED lighting device with PDOT:PSS TCF layer
6.81.A 12.5 cm2 OLED on PET with a PDOT transparent conductive layer
6.82.A typical device stack for PDOT:PSS TCF films coated by Eastman Kodak
6.83.Various metal grid patterns
6.84.Concept behind a metal grid TCF
6.85.Transparent conductive films printed using high precision screen printing on PET substrates
6.86.Sheet resistance as a function of optical transmission for different materials
6.87.Title missing
6.88.A schematic of the manufacturing process flow used by UniPixel
6.89.Various touch sensor film configurations produced by UniPixel. suitable for projective capacitive
6.90.Metal mesh pattern structure produced by UniPixel
6.91.Product characteristics for transparent conductive films produced using embossing/plating by UniPixel
6.92.Nanoparticle tracks embedded in the substrate
6.93.The difference between embedded and overlaid track configuration
6.94.A schematic giving insight into MNTech's manufacturing process and a table outlining performance levels
6.95.Manufacturing process flow for making metal mesh TCFs using silver halides
6.96.Metalized mesh (etched copper metalized film
6.97.Picture and pattern of transparent thermally conductive film
6.98.Key performance data characteristics 3M's metal mesh TCFs
6.99.An example of a photo-lithographically-patterned silver metal mesh TCF
6.100.A suggested production method for creating 3M's silver metal mesh based on their patents
6.101.A schematic of the Rolith's production process using a rolling photolithography equipment
6.102.Comparing transmission vs sheet resistance of Rolith's metal mesh again Cambrios, Cima Nanotech, Heraeus, Canatu's and Unidym's products
6.103.Transmission as a function of wavelength for Rolith's transparent conductors
6.104.Image of metal mesh structure created using rolling photolithography
6.105.Application areas using fine micro wire
6.106.The silver nanoparticle self-assembly process
6.107.Overlapping silver nanoparticle rings creating a transparent conductive film layer
7.1.Total coverage area for transparent conductive films and glass as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.2.Total market size for transparent conductive films and glass as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.3.Total market size for transparent conductive films and glass as a function of year between 2013 and 2024 (including LCD displays)
7.4.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the smart phone sector
7.5.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the smart phone (touch) sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.6.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the tablet sector
7.7.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the tablet (touch) sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2023
7.8.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the touch notebook sector
7.9.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the touch notebook sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.10.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the touch monitor sector
7.11.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the touch monitor sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.12.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the displays sector (mobile, tablet, notebook, monitor and LCD TV)
7.13.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the OLED lighting sector
7.14.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the OLED lighting sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.15.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the OPV sector
7.16.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the OPV sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.17.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the DSSC sector
7.18.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the DSSC sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2024
7.19.Ten-year market forecast for conductive films and glass in the EL display sector
7.20.Market share evolution for transparent conductive film and glass technologies in the EL display sector as a function of year between 2013 and 2023
7.21.Ten year market forecast for transparent conductive films and glass across all applications broken down by technology
7.22.Ten year market forecast for transparent conductive films and glass across all applications broken down by technology
7.23.Ten year forecast for carbon nanotube application area growth
7.24.Ten year market forecast for carbon nanotubes in different TCF markets
7.25.Ten year forecast for metal mesh application area growth
7.26.Ten year market forecast for metal mesh in different TCF markets
7.27.Ten year forecast for silver nanowires application area growth
7.28.Ten year market forecast for silver nanowires in different markets
7.29.Ten year forecast for ITO-on-PET application area growth
7.30.Ten year market forecast for ITO-on-PET in different TCF markets
7.31.Ten year forecast for ITO-on-Glass application area growth
7.32.Ten year market forecast for ITO-on-Glass in different markets
7.33.Ten year market forecast for ITO-on-Glass in different markets
7.34.Ten year forecast for PEDOT and other organic transparent conductor application area growth
7.35.Ten year market forecast for PEDOT and other organic transparent conductors in different markets
9.1.Typical properties on PET with bar coater
9.2.Key performance data characteristics 3M's metal mesh TCFs
9.3.Yielded cost per unit area of TCF for touch panel applications
9.4.Tiny copper wires can be built in bulk and then "printed" on a surface to conduct current, transparently.
9.5.Eastman Kodak HCF Film
9.6.Opportunity for PEDOT in the Display industry
9.7.Performance of PEDOT formulation from Eastman Kodak versus ITO
9.8.CNT Ink Production Process
9.9.Target application areas of Eikos
9.10.Transmittance (%) as a function of wavelength (nm) for organic conductive polymers and ITO.
9.11.Comparison of organic conductive polymers and configuration of the developed organic conductive polymer film
9.12.Gunze's flexible display, presented early 2009
9.13.Picture and pattern of transparent thermally conductive film
9.14.Efficiency of TCF vs cell size
9.15.Indium migration vs other TCFs
9.16.A schematic giving insight into MNTech's manufacturing process and a table outlining performance levels
9.17.Ga:ZnO films on a glass panel with the inventors and scanning electron images of 3D transparent conducting electrodes
9.18.The owners of Nicanti
9.19.Nicanti Printaf project
9.20.Transparent conductive film - ELECRYSTA
9.21.Sales and operating profits for Nitto Denko
9.22.Nitto Denko's product offerings for displays including ITO film
9.23.Transparent conductive film using organic semiconductors
9.24.TCF solutions from Panipol
9.25.Polychem PEDOT Polymer Coating
9.26.Patterned Sample by the New Technology
9.27.JEFF FITLOW -Yu Zhu, a postdoctoral researcher at Rice University, holds a sample of a transparent electrode that merges graphene and a fine aluminum grid
9.28.A hybrid material that combines a fine aluminum mesh with a single-atom-thick layer of graphene
9.29.An electron microscope image of a hybrid electrode developed at Rice University
9.30.Roll-to-roll CVD production of very large-sized flexible graphene films
9.31.ITO-on-PET film stack
9.32.FLECLEAR structure
9.33.Teijin's ELECLEAR ITO film
9.34.New metal grid TCF technology developed by Toray
9.35.Etched metal mesh TCF technology developed by Toray
9.36.CNT TCF technology developed by Toray

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