Supercapacitor / Ultracapacitor Strategies and Emerging Applications 2013 - 2025
Published Date » 2013-06-01
No. Of Pages » 180
Traditionally, rechargeable batteries have been used as energy dense products and the other devices based on capacitors have been used as power dense products. There are more-power-dense versions of the favourite rechargeable batteries - lithium-ion with 70% or so of the rechargeable battery market in 2023. Unfortunately, power dense rechargeable batteries surrender a lot of energy density. It is therefore helpful that more and more energy dense supercapacitors and variants are becoming available, some even matching lead acid batteries and yet retaining excellent power density. This convergence of properties has led to the widespread combination of the two in parallel, particularly in power applications. Battery/supercapacitor combinations approach the performance of an ideal battery - something that can never be achieved with a battery alone because its chemical reactions cause movement, swelling and eventually irreversability. In some cases, things have gone further. For example, hybrid buses using supercapacitors now rarely use them across the traction battery - the supercapacitor replaces the battery, the only battery remaining in the vehicle being a small lead-acid starter battery.
Many more supercapacitor variants are now available. There is now almost a continuum of devices between conventional electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries as we explain in the report. The analysis of 80 manufacturers and putative manufacturers reveals, for example, how battery manufacturers and conventional capacitor manufacturers are entering the business of devices intermediate between the two. However, rather surprisingly, most of the intermediate devices are developed and manufactured by companies not in either conventional capacitors or batteries. Although we use the term intermediate devices, some have some properties superior to both conventional capacitors and rechargeable batteries.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Supercapacitors and batteries converge
1.1.1. Supercapacitors and Li-ion Batteries are one business
1.2. Success by application and territory
1.3. Most are chasing area improvement
1.4. Even lower temperature
1.5. Price and functional issues
1.6. Supercapacitors in vehicles
1.6.1. Conventional vehicles
1.6.2. Electric vehicles
1.7. Incidence of the different technologies
1.7.1. Incidence of manufacturers by operating principle
1.7.2. Incidence of current collector and active electrode types
1.7.4. Solid electrolytes
1.8. Achieving the impossible
1.9. Manufacturers and putative manufacturers
1.10. New entrants
1.11. Supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries are now one business
1.12. Change of leadership of the global value market?
3. ADVANCES REQUIRED AND PROGRESS IDENTIFIED
3.1. Supercapacitors in vehicles
3.2. Ensuring that supercapacitors will replace more batteries
4. APPLICATIONS NOW AND IN THE FUTURE
4.1. Pulse Power
4.2. Bridge Power
4.3. Main Power
4.4. Memory Backup
4.4.1. Evolution of commercially successful functions
4.4.2. Composite structural and smart skin supercapacitors for power storage
4.5. Manufacturer successes and strategies by application
5. SURVEY OF 80 MANUFACTURERS
6. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OBJECTIVES BY MANUFACTURER
7. EXAMPLES OF NON-COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
8. ELECTROLYTES BY MANUFACTURER
9. INTERVIEWS AND COMMENTARY ON COMPANY STRATEGY FOR SUPERCAPACITORS
9.1. Interviews with suppliers
9.1.1. Cap-XX Australia
9.1.2. Cellergy Israel
9.1.3. East Penn Manufacturing USA
9.1.4. Elton Super Capacitor Russian Federation
9.1.5. Inmatech USA
9.1.6. Ioxus USA
9.1.7. JR Micro Japan
9.1.8. Maxwell Technologies USA
9.1.9. Nanotune Technologies USA
9.1.10. Nesscap Energy Inc Canada/Korea
9.1.11. Nichicon Japan
9.1.12. Nippon ChemiCon/ United ChemiCon Japan
9.1.13. Yo-Engineering Russian Federation
9.1.14. Yunasko Russian Federation
9.2. User interviews and inputs
9.2.1. Bombardier Canada
9.2.2. Hydrogenics Corporation USA
9.2.3. Honda Japan
10. DEVELOPER, MATERIALS SUPPLIER AND ACADEMIC INPUTS
10.1. Daikin Industries Japan
10.2. Hutchinson (TOTAL) France
10.3. IFEVS Italy
10.4. Northeastern University USA
10.5. NYSERDA grants reveal trends of research
10.6. Tecate Group USA
10.7. Yuri Gogotski
List of Tables
1.1. Main achievements and objectives with supercapacitors and their derivatives by number of manufacturers and putative manufacturers involved
1.2. The ten advances that will create the largest add-on markets for supercapacitors and their derivatives in order of importance in creating market value with examples of organisations leading the advance
1.3. 15 examples of component displacement by supercapacitors in 2012-3
1.4. Supercapacitor functions reaching major market acceptance 2013-2023 with some of the companies leading the success by sector
1.5. 80 manufacturers, putative manufacturers and commercial companies developing supercapacitors, supercabatteries and carbon-enhanced lead batteries for commercialisation with country, website and device technology.
2.2. Some of the pros and cons of supercapacitors
3.1. Advances that will create the largest add-on markets for supercapacitors and their derivatives by value in order of importance with examples of organisations leading the advance.
3.2. Examples of component displacement by supercapacitors.
4.1. Supercapacitor functions reaching major market acceptance 2013-2023 with some of the companies leading the success by sector
5.1. 80 manufacturers, putative manufacturers and commercial companies developing supercapacitors, supercabatteries and carbon-enhanced lead batteries for commercialisation with country, website and device technology.
6.1. By application, for Automotive, Aerospace, Military and Oil & Gas, the successes by 78 supercapacitor/supercabattery manufacturers in grey green and their targets for extra applications in the near term in yellow. Six sub categori
6.2. The successes in six categories in the Utility sector by 78 supercapacitor/supercabattery manufacturers in grey green and their targets for extra applications in the near term in yellow
6.3. The successes by 78 supercapacitor/supercabattery manufacturers in the Consumer and Industrial & Commercial sectors in grey green and their targets for extra applications in the near term in yellow. Eight sub-categories are analys
7.1. Non-commercial supercapacitor developers with their country, website, industrial partner, applications targeted
8.1. Electrolytes used - acetonitrile solvent, other solvent or ionic liquid - by supercapacitor and lithium supercabattery manufacturers and putative manufacturers.
List of Figures
1.1. Some of the options and some of the suppliers in the spectrum between conventional capacitors and rechargeable batteries with primary markets shown in yellow.
1.2. Examination of achievement and strategy in the most important applicational sectors. Number of manufacturers of supercapacitors and their variants that have that have supplied given sectors vs number that target them for future ex
1.3. Probable timeline for market adoption by sector and technical achievements driving the growth of the market for supercapacitors and their derivatives 2013-2025 with market value projections for supercapacitors, cost and performanc
1.4. Some of the main ways in which greater supercapacitor energy density is being sought by the route of increasing useful carbon area per unit volume or weight
1.5. The main functions that supercapacitors will perform over the coming decade
1.6. Examples of the main functions performed by supercapacitors
1.7. The evolution from conventional to various types of electric vehicle related to supercapacitor applications in them today, where hybrids and pure electric versions are a primary target
1.8. Possible timeframe and technology for reaching the tipping point for sales of pure electric on-road cars
1.9. The number of manufacturers and putative manufacturers of supercapacitors/supercabatteries by six sub-categories of technology
1.10. Component displacement mapped as a function of benefits relative to batteries conferred by supercapacitors
1.11. Estimate of the number of trading manufacturers of supercapacitors and supercabatteries globally 1993-2025 including timing of industry shakeout.
2.1. Types of capacitor
2.2. Symmetric supercapacitor EDLC left compared with asymmetric AEDLC ie supercabattery with battery-like cathode (ie part electrochemical in action) shown right. During charge and discharge, the voltage is nearly constant resulting i
2.3. Symmetric supercapacitor EDLC compared with asymmetric AEDLC ie supercabattery with lithiated carbon anode (ie entirely electrostatic in action) shown right
2.4. Eight families of option and some of the suppliers in the spectrum between conventional capacitors and rechargeable batteries with primary markets shown in yellow
3.1. The main functions that supercapacitors will perform over the coming decade
3.2. Examples of the main functions performed by supercapacitors. Those in black are currently only achieved with a flammable, carcinogenic electrolyte - acrylonitrile - but this will change
3.3. The evolution from conventional to various types of electric vehicle related to supercapacitor applications in them today, where hybrids and pure electric versions are a primary target.
3.4. Possible timeframe and technology for reaching the tipping point for sales of pure electric on-road cars
3.5. Component displacement mapped as a function of benefits relative to batteries conferred by supercapacitors
3.6. Siemens view in 2012 of the elements of Electrical Bus Rapid Transit eBRT, for example, mentioning U-Caps meaning supercapacitors
4.1. Examples of applications of the ULTIMO Cell
4.2. Structural supercapacitor as flexible film.
4.3. Primary demand for energy storage for battery-like products in Europe in 2020, which will be satisfied by batteries, supercapacitors, intermediate products and combinations of these
5.1. Incidence of the different technologies
5.2. Number of manufacturers offering the various supercapacitor technologies including derivatives, some companies having several options
5.3. Estimate of the number of trading manufacturers of supercapacitors and supercabatteries globally 1993-2025 including timing of industry shakeout.
9.1. UltrabatteryTM for medium hybrid vehicles
9.2. Inmatech Innovations
9.3. Supercapacitor market and Inmatech
9.4. Maxwell Technologies flat supercapacitor for mobile phones etc. exhibited at EVS26 Los Angeles
9.5. Nichicon supercapacitor emphasis at EVS26 Los Angeles 2012
9.6. Supercapacitor-based electric vehicle fast charging stations launched in 2012 by Nichicon.
9.7. Mazda car supercapacitor exhibited at EVS26 Los Angeles 2012
9.8. Nippon Chemi-Con low resistance DXE Series priority shown in 2012
9.9. Exhibit by United ChemiCon at EVS26 Los Angeles
10.1. Daikin Industries display on fluorination of supercapacitor electrolytes
10.2. Extracts from Hutchinson presentation at eCarTec Munich October 2012
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