Manned Electric Aircraft 2013-2023: Trends, Projects, Forecasts

Published Date » 2014-02-01
No. Of Pages » 270
 Electric aircraft serve the need for reduced noise, air and ground pollution and reduced global warming. They provide freedom from foreign sources of oil. They make new things possible such as helicopters that can carry out a controlled landing after engineering failures thanks to electric backup and leisure aircraft getting all their "fuel" from solar cells on the hanger. They expand the market for aircraft, while modernising the industry and opening up applications for many new electrical components and systems, including structural components, printed electronics and smart skin. 
 Electrically driven aircraft are arriving from the bottom up in the form of hang gliders and sailplanes and from the top down in the form of large hybrid helicopters and airliners that have...

1.1. Introduction to electric aircraft
1.1.1. Examples of commercially available light aircraft and hang gliders
1.2. All EV components will radically change
1.2.1. Traction motors
1.2.2. Power circuitry
1.2.3. Range extenders
1.2.4. Fuel cells are also range extenders
1.2.5. Energy harvesting, wingtip vortex turbines
1.2.6. Traction batteries
1.2.7. Supercapacitors
1.2.8. Energy storage comparisons
1.2.9. Parts merge, structured components, smart skin
1.2.10. Electric helicopters enabled
1.2.11. Europe often in the lead
1.3. Need for more benchmarking
1.4. Market projections 2013-2023
1.5. Progress in 2013
1.6. US success in 2013
1.7. 7th Annual CAFE Electric Aircraft Symposium: Day 1
1.7.1. VTOL, hybrids and energy harvesting come center stage
1.7.2. Carbon fiber gets easier
1.7.3. Lithium-ion batteries need care
1.7.4. Disquiet about the Boeing Dreamliner
1.7.5. Way out energy sources
1.7.6. Graphene
1.7.7. Thin film photovoltaic but not yet
1.8. 7th Annual CAFE Electric Aircraft Symposium: Day 2
1.9. Latest view from Europe

2.1. Definitions and scope
2.2. Needs
2.3. Encouragement
2.4. Impediments
2.5. Benchmarking best practice with land and seagoing EVs
2.6. Standards and rules
2.7. Airport EVs show the way

3.1. Powertrains
3.1.1. Pure electric vs hybrid
3.1.2. Convergence
3.1.3. Options
3.1.4. Range extenders
3.1.5. Airliner superconducting motor with range extender
3.2. Electric traction motors
3.2.1. Traction motors for land, water and air vehicles
3.3. Shape of motors
3.4. Location of motors
3.5. Traction motor technology preference
3.5.1. A look at all types of electric vehicle
3.5.2. Lesson for electric aircraft traction motors
3.6. Blunt motor talk at EV Japan
3.7. Switched reluctance motors a disruptive traction motor technology?
3.8. Three ways that traction motor makers race to escape rare earths
3.8.1. Synchronous motors with no magnets - switched reluctance
3.8.2. Synchronous motors with new magnets
3.8.3. Asynchronous motors
3.8.4. More to come
3.9. Implications for electric aircraft
3.10. Batteries
3.10.1. Battery history
3.10.2. Analogy to a container of liquid
3.10.3. Construction of a battery
3.10.4. Many shapes of battery
3.10.5. Trend to laminar and conformal traction batteries
3.10.6. Aurora laminar batteries in aircraft.
3.10.7. Choices of chemistry and assembly
3.10.8. Lithium winners today and soon
3.10.9. Lithium polymer electrolyte now important
3.10.10. Winning chemistry
3.10.11. Winning lithium traction battery manufacturers
3.10.12. Making lithium batteries safe
3.10.13. Boeing Dreamliner: Implications for electric aircraft
3.11. Fuel cells
3.11.1. Slow progress with fuel cells
3.11.2. Aerospace and aviation applications
3.11.3. AeroVironment USA
3.11.4. Boeing Europe
3.11.5. Boeing and Airbus USA, Europe
3.11.6. ENFICA Italy and UK
3.11.7. Pipistrel Slovenia
3.11.8. University of Stuttgart Germany
3.12. Supercapacitors, supercabatteries
3.12.1. What is a capacitor?
3.12.2. Why supercapacitors increasingly replace batteries
3.12.3. Supercabattery
3.12.4. Extreme Capacitors
3.13. Energy harvesting
3.13.1. Photovoltaics
3.13.2. Green Pioneer China
3.13.3. Gossamer Penguin USA
3.13.4. Néphélios France
3.13.5. Solair Germany
3.13.6. Sunseeker USA
3.13.7. University of Applied Sciences Schwäbisch Gmünd Germany
3.14. Other energy harvesting
3.14.1. Regenerative soaring
3.14.2. Wingtip vortex turbines
3.15. Hybrid powertrains in action
3.15.1. Multifuel and monoblock engines
3.15.2. Beyond Aviation: formerly Bye Energy USA, France
3.15.3. Flight Design Germany
3.15.4. Lotus UK
3.15.5. Microturbines - Bladon Jets, Capstone, ETV Motors, Atria
3.16. Hybrid aircraft projects
3.16.1. Delta Airlines USA
3.16.2. DLR Germany
3.16.3. EADS Germany
3.16.4. Flight Design Germany
3.16.5. GSE USA
3.16.6. Hybrid aircraft university work
3.16.7. Ricardo UK
3.16.8. Turtle Airships Spain
3.16.9. University of Colorado USA
3.17. Rethinking the structural design

4.1. Pure electric helicopters
4.1.1. Hirobo
4.1.2. Pascal Chretien/ SYNPER 3/ Solution F France
4.1.3. Sikorsky USA
4.2. Volocopter
4.2.1. e-volo Volocopter Germany
4.3. Hybrid helicopters
4.3.1. Examples of activity
4.3.2. Eurocopter helicopter default EV Europe
4.3.3. MyCopter Europe
4.3.4. Terrafugia flying cars USA
4.4. Design analysis

5.1. Guenther Poeschel Denmark
5.2. Equator Aircraft Norway
5.3. FlyNano Finland

6.1. Light aircraft - University of Texas at Arlington USA
6.2. Potential for electric airliners

7.1. Airliner electric nose wheel for taxiing
7.1.1. APU powered electric nose wheel
7.1.2. Honeywell Safran EGTS
7.1.3. Israel Aircraft Industries' TaxiBot
7.1.4. Fuel cell powered electric nose wheel
7.2. Fixed wing light aircraft
7.2.1. Alatus Ukraine
7.2.2. Alisport Silent Club Italy
7.2.3. Alternair USA
7.2.4. APAME France
7.2.5. Cessna USA
7.2.6. Diamond Aircraft, Siemens, EADS
7.2.7. EADS Germany, France
7.2.8. Electravia France
7.2.9. Electric Aircraft Corporation USA
7.2.10. Electroflight UK
7.2.11. Falx USA
7.2.12. Flight of the Century
7.2.13. Flightstar USA
7.2.14. Flying motorcycle Samson Motorworks
7.2.15. Lange Aviation Germany
7.2.16. Pipistrel Slovenia
7.2.17. Phantom Works USA plane-car
7.2.18. Renault France
7.2.19. Russian Government Russia
7.2.20. SkySpark Italy
7.2.21. Sonex USA
7.2.22. Sunrise USA
7.2.23. Tokyo University Japan
7.2.24. Windward Performance USA
7.2.25. University of Cambridge UK
7.2.26. Yuneec International China

8.1. Forecast sales 2013-2023
8.2. Energy efficient aircraft - the next 15 years

List of Tables

1.1. Number of electric aircraft, sold globally, Military / Security vs Other, 2013-2023
1.2. Global demand for aircraft 2011-2031
1.3. Prices of pure electric manned, single person aircraft in thousands of dollars
3.1. Electric vehicle drivetrain options, with those most adopted and prioritised for the future shown shaded
3.2. Summary of preferences of traction motor technology for vehicles
3.3. Advantages vs disadvantages of brushed vs brushless vehicle traction motors for today's vehicles
3.4. Most likely winners and losers in the next decade
3.5. Supplier numbers listed by continent
3.6. Traction motor supplier numbers listed by country in alphabetical order
3.7. Applications targeted by our sample of motor suppliers vs market split, listed in order of 2012 market size
3.8. Suppliers of vehicle traction motors - split between number offering asynchronous, synchronous and both, where identified
3.9. Suppliers offering brushed, brushless and both types of synchronous motors, where identified
3.10. Distribution of vehicle sample by applicational sector
3.11. Vehicles with asynchronous, synchronous or both options by category in number and percentage of category, listed in order of declining asynchronous percentage
3.12. 212 electric vehicle models analysed by category for % asynchronous, power and torque of their electric traction motors and where intensive or rough use is most typically encountered. The rated power and traction data are enhanced
3.13. Percentage of old and abandoned models in the survey that use asynchronous or synchronous motors
3.14. Number of vehicles surveyed that have a mention of using brushed DC synchronous motors, by type of vehicle
3.15. Other motor features declared by vehicle manufacturers
3.16. What is on the way in or out with traction batteries
3.17. 138 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries showing country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte form, case, targeted applicational sectors and sales relationships and successes by veh
3.18. Five ways in which a capacitor acts as the electrical equivalent of the spring
3.19. Examples of energy density figures for batteries, supercapacitors and other energy sources
3.20. Comparison of the three types of capacitor when storing one kilojoule of energy
3.21. Pros and cons of supercapacitors as relevant to aviation
3.22. Choices of flexible photovoltaics
7.1. Alternair AMP-100 statistics
8.1. Number of electric aircraft, sold globally, Military / Security vs Other, 2013-2023
8.2. UAV market numbers 2011-2023
8.3. UAV market unit value 2011-2023, in dollars million
8.4. Total market value for UAVs 2011-2023, in dollars million

List of Figures

1.1. Pipistrel
1.2. PC-Aero Germany
1.3. Yuneec electric paramotor
1.4. Some proposals for suburban electric aircraft
1.5. Light utility aircraft - power-systems weight comparison
1.6. Light primary trainer - power-systems weight comparison
1.7. Battery and jet fuel loading
1.8. Structural carbon fiber from Secar Technologie in Germany potentially for electric helicopters
1.9. Record breaking cars based on Secar Technologie structural fibers - lessons for aircraft
2.1. Bionic Dolphin and Neckar Nymph
2.2. Gannet diving and planned Cormorant military spy plane/submarine
2.3. Puffin concept
2.4. Jaguar super car using electric drive with mini turbine range extenders - lessons for aviation
3.1. Hybrid technology evolving as traction batteries improve
3.2. The convergence of hybrid and pure electric technologies
3.3. GE electric aircraft configuration
3.4. Location of motors sold in 2022 in vehicles in which they are fitted, in millions of motors and percent of all motors with all figures rounded
3.5. Supplier numbers listed by continent
3.6. Traction motor supplier numbers listed by country
3.7. Targeted applications on top vs market value split in 2012 centre and 2022 on bottom
3.8. Suppliers of vehicle traction motors - split between number offering asynchronous, synchronous and both, where identified
3.9. Number of vehicles surveyed that have a mention of using brushed DC synchronous motors, by type of vehicle
3.10. Number of cars sampled that had one, two, three or four traction electric motors
3.11. Poster displays concerning switched reluctance traction motors
3.12. Multiple electric motors on a NASA solar powered, unmanned aircraft for the upper atmosphere
3.13. The four Cri Cri electric motors
3.14. Construction of a battery cell
3.15. Approximate percentage of manufacturers offering traction batteries with less cobalt vs those offering ones with no cobalt vs those offering both. We also show the number of suppliers that offer lithium iron phosphate versions.
3.16. The UPS 747 that crashed in the UAE with a shipment of lithium batteries
3.17. Burning Dreamliner pictures
3.18. Principle of PEM fuel cell
3.19. PEM fuel cell in long endurance upper atmosphere unmanned aircraft
3.20. Japanese ten meter long deep sea cruising fuel cell AUV, the URASHIMA, delivering formidable power
3.21. Pilot plus payload vs range for fuel cell light aircraft and alternatives
3.22. Total weight vs flight time for PEM fuel cell planes
3.23. Takeoff gross weight breakdowns. Left: Conventional reciprocating-engine-powered airplane. Right: Fuel-cell-powered airplane.
3.24. Boeing fuel cell powered FCD aircraft
3.25. ENFICA FC fuel cell plane
3.26. Hydrogenius
3.27. Principle of the creation and maintenance of an aluminium electrolytic capacitor
3.28. Construction of wound electrolytic capacitor
3.29. Comparison of construction diagrams of three basic types of capacitor
3.30. Rechargeable energy storage - where supercapacitors fit in
3.31. Energy density vs power density for storage devices
3.32. Supercapacitor construction on left compared with supercabattery on right, otherwise known as an asymmetric electrochemical double layer capacitor.
3.33. Alternair Amp General Arrangement Drawing
3.34. Electric Eagle air taxi concept
3.35. Experience curve for new photovoltaic technologies
3.36. Ubiquitous flexible photovoltaics
3.37. Green Pioneer I
3.38. Gossamer Penguin
3.39. Néphélios planned solar airship
3.40. Bubble Plane
3.41. Electraflyer Trike
3.42. Electraflyer uncowled
3.43. Principle of vortex turbine
3.44. Wingtip vortex turbines
3.45. Wingtip vortex turbine trial by NASA
3.46. A hybrid boat
3.47. Lotus monoblock hybrid engine
3.48. Adura MESA powertrain for buses and trucks employing Capstone turbine range extender
3.49. The Bladon Jets microturbine range extender
3.50. Twin Bladon jets in rear of Jaguar C-X75 concept supercar exhibited in 2010
3.51. Planned Velozzi supercar with miniturbine range extender
3.52. The diesel-electric hybrid propulsion helicopter concept is one of the eco-friendly solutions being evaluated by EADS for rotary-wing aircraft
3.53. GSE mini diesel driving a propeller
3.54. Greg Stevenson (left) and Gene Sheehan, Fueling Team GFC contender, with GSE Engines.
3.55. Block diagram of the Frank/Stevenson parallel hybrid system
3.56. Ricardo Wolverine engine for hybrid UAVs
3.57. Turtle Airship landed on water in concept drawing
3.58. University of Colorado hybrid aeroengine
3.59. Electrified horse drawn carriages in 1900 were nothing like the cars that resulted later
3.60. US Airforce interest in smart sensing skin for aircraft and aircrew
3.61. T-Ink printed and laminated overhead control console for an electric car
3.62. T-Ink washable heated apparel based on printed elements
4.1. The world's first pure electric helicopter to fly
4.2. Mr Tunji Adebusuyi of LiTHIUM BALANCE and Dr Peter Harrop, Chairman of IDTechEx
4.3. Sikorsky all electric helicopter
4.4. Volocopter concept
4.5. Volocopter first flight in 2011
4.6. MyCopter artist's impression
4.7. Experimental platform used to study MyCopter collision avoidance and flocking strategies
5.1. The Legacy of G. Poeschel
5.2. Piper Malibu compared with the original Equator aircraft
5.3. Illustration of the Equator Aircraft Norway concept
5.4. Student involvement
5.5. The FlyNano open pure electric flying boat concept and maiden flight
6.1. Study of a long distance pure-electric small aircraft
6.2. EADS concept of a VoltAir electric 'fanliner'
7.1. Nosewheel with WheelTug
7.2. WheelTug electrified airliner nose wheel
7.3. The Wheeltug system
7.4. DLR fuel cell powered electric nosewheel for Airbus A320
7.5. Airbus A320
7.6. DLR Airbus A320 successfully taxiing using the fuel cell powered nosewheel
7.7. Alatus - M Electric 44 - AOI Motorglider
7.8. Alternair AMP-100
7.9. Electra
7.10. Anne Lavrand, Project Manager of Electra, receiving the Award
7.11. The world's first aircraft with a serial hybrid electric drive system
7.12. Cri Cri stunt aircraft
7.13. Electravia's ElectroLight and ElectroClub
7.14. The ElectraFlyer C
7.15. The Falx hybrid-electric tilt-rotor concept in paramedic trim left and military trim right.
7.16. Planned flight of Flight of the Century pure electric aircraft
7.17. Test bed aircraft for design of Flight of the Century
7.18. PC-Aero Germany
7.19. Enhanced solar coverage on Elektra One
7.20. Elektra One Solar Plane Now Comes With its Own Photovoltaic Charging Trailer
7.21. Solar Hangar Recharges Zero-Emission Electric Airplane
7.22. Samson Motorworks flying motorcycle
7.23. Antares 20E
7.24. Pipistrel
7.25. Taurus Electro
7.26. Taurus Electro stationary
7.27. Pipistrel controls
7.28. Zep'lin
7.29. Concept of a nuclear powered electrically driven dirigible
7.30. SkySpark Italy
7.31. Sonex Aircraft
7.32. In 2006, the Japanese flew the first pure electric manned aircraft.
7.33. Lazair
7.34. The twin-engine, fixed-wing Lazair airframe
7.35. Cost for the plane will be about $89,000 when it is available commercially in 2011.
7.36. Yuneec electric paramotor
7.37. Yuneec microlight
8.1. Artist concept of an energy efficient NASA aircraft that could enter service in 2025 designed by a team led by Northrop Grumman
8.2. NASA preview of The Boeing Company team design
8.3. Artist's concept of the Lockheed Martin team design

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