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Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Security and Privacy: Challenges and Opportunities

Mind Commerce Publishing
Published Date » 2014-08-14
No. Of Pages » 94
 Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications will be developed in various sectors of the industry at a rapid pace over the next five years, reaching an inflexion point by 2020 as the Internet of Things (IoT) begins a high growth phase. With increasingly more devices connected to the Internet in which critical business processes depend, the threats to applications increase in terms of incidence, severity, and impact. 
   
 It is important to recognize that applications are susceptible to physical attacks on devices as well as network-level attacks, which in many cases have different issues and solutions.  
 The M2M industry is quickly recognizing the need to deal with security and privacy issues pertaining to M2M, but understanding the specific issues and solutions are not broadly...
Table of Contents:
 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
 
Part One: Machine-to-Machine Security 12
1.0 EXPLOITED VULNERABILITIES AND ATTACKS 12
2.0 SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR M2M 14
2.1 Authentication 14
2.2 Confidentiality 14
2.3 Access control 14
2.4 Integrity 15
2.5 Privacy 15
2.6 Availability 15
2.7 Non-repudiation 15
3.0 FACTORS LEADING TO COMPLEXITY IN M2M APPLICATIONS 16
3.1 Proliferation of Nodes in Network 16
3.2 Limited Computational Power 16
3.3 Lack of Awareness 16
3.4 Lack of Pre-set Rules 17
3.5 Difficult to Tackle Denial of Power Attacks 17
3.6 Need to Reduce Risk Exposure 17
3.7 DDoS Attack from Compromised Nodes 17
3.8 Users Responsible for Enabling Security Protection 18
3.9 Security is Not highest Priority 18
4.0 MEASURES TO ENSURE SECURITY FOR M2M APPLICATIONS 19
4.1 Security Considerations during Design Phase 19
4.2 Define User-level Security 19
4.3 Limited Access to Internet 20
4.4 Use of Open-source Software to Configure Specific Security Settings 20
4.5 Vendors to Disclose Vulnerabilities 20
4.6 Analyze Attack Surface to Understand Probable Attack Points 21
4.7 Ensure Secure Design 21
4.8 Code Signing to Confirm Integrity 21
4.9 All Value Chain Layers Must be Secured 22
4.10 Stakeholders to Work in Sync for Security Measures 22
4.11 Do not Allow Permanent Access 24
4.12 Implement Typical Security Measures 24
5.0 TWO POINTS OF ATTACK ON M2M COMMUNICATIONS 25
5.1 Physical Attacks on Unattended Devices 25
5.1.1 Recommendations to Increase Security of Physical Devices 26
5.2 Network-side Attacks 26
5.2.1 Recommendations to Increase Security on Network Side 27
6.0 DIFFERENCE IN M2M COMMUNICATION OVER GSM AND CDMA 28
7.0 CRITICAL DEVICE CONTROLS BY M2M APPLICATIONS 29
8.0 SECURITY AN INTEGRAL PART OF APPLICATION DESIGN 30
9.0 SOPHISTICATED SECURITY MECHANISMS FOR M2M SECURITY 31
9.1 Early Detection of Compromised Nodes 31
9.2 Bandwidth Efficient Cooperative Authentication 31
10.0 EVOLVING ELEMENTS OF SECURITY 32
11.0 SECURITY IS ONE OF MANY GO-TO-MARKET FACTORS 33
12.0 SECURING THE COMMUNICATIONS AND NOT JUST DEVICES 34
13.0 USE OF IPV6: ADDED SECURITY PROBLEMS 35
14.0 ADEQUATE USE OF CERTIFICATE FOR SECURITY 36
15.0 SPECIAL SKILL-SET REQUIRED FOR DEPLOYING SECURITY TOOLS 37
16.0 ORGANIZATIONS AND COLLABORATIONS FOR STANDARDS 38
16.1 AllSeen Alliance 38
16.2 IETF 39
16.3 Mobile App Security Working Group 39
16.4 Machine-to-Machine Standardization Task Force (MSTF) 39
16.5 Standards by Verticals 40
 
Part Two: Machine-to-Machine Privacy 41
 
17.0 PRIVACY CONCERNS 41
17.1 Data Ownership Unclear 42
17.2 Control Factor Unclear 42
17.3 Government Initiatives 43
17.4 Across Boundaries and Verticals 43
17.5 Aspects of Privacy and Security to be Re-addressed 44
18.0 PRIVACY AND SECURITY CONCERNS FOR BIG DATA 45
18.1 Automated Access through Authorizations 45
18.2 Non-standard Approach to Granting Access 46
18.3 Business Continuity Risk 47
18.4 Best Practices 47
19.0 PRIVACY ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING 49
20.0 PRIVACY AN INTEGRAL PART OF APPLICATION DESIGN 50
 
Part Three: Industry Views on Security 51
 
21.0 INDUSTRY SURVEY ON SECURITY 51
21.1 Introduction 51
21.2 Survey Participants 51
21.3 Geographic Reach 52
21.4 Role of M2M in Applications 53
21.5 Highest Concerns of M2M Solution Deployment 53
21.6 Highest Security Concern while Deploying M2M Solutions 54
21.7 Security Solution 55
21.8 Concluding Remarks on Industry Survey 55
 
Part Four: Wireless Sensor Networks 57
 
22.0 INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 57
23.0 SECURITY THREATS ON OSI LAYERS FOR WSN 58
23.1 Physical Layer of OSI Model 58
23.1.1 Attacks in Physical Layer 58
23.1.2 Countermeasures for Attack in Physical layer 59
23.2 MAC Layer of OSI Model 62
23.2.1 Attacks in MAC Layer 62
23.2.2 Countermeasures for Attack in MAC Layer 63
23.3 Network Layer of OSI Model 66
23.3.1 Attacks in Network Layer 67
23.3.2 Countermeasures for Attack in Network Layer 69
23.4 Application Layer of OSI Model 71
23.4.1 Attacks in Application Layer 72
23.4.2 Countermeasures for Attack in Application layer 73
23.5 Concluding Remarks on Security Threats on OSI layer 74
24.0 SECURITY GOALS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 76
24.1 Primary Security Goals 76
24.1.1 Data Integrity 76
24.1.2 Data Authentication 77
24.1.3 Data Confidentiality 77
24.1.4 Data Availability 77
24.2 Secondary Security Goals 77
24.2.1 Self-Organization 77
24.2.2 Time Synchronization 77
24.2.3 Data Freshness 78
24.2.4 Secure Localization 78
25.0 CHALLENGES FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 79
25.1 Wireless Medium inherently Less Secure 79
25.2 Security Tools to Adopt to Ad-Hoc Nature 79
25.3 Hostile Environment of Sensor Nodes 80
25.4 Resource Inadequacy of Sensor Devices 80
25.5 Massive Scale of IoT / M2M 80
25.6 Unreliable Communication 80
25.6.1 Unreliable Transfer 80
25.6.2 Conflicts 80
25.6.3 Latency 81
25.7 Unattended Sensor Nodes 81
25.7.1 Exposure to Physical Attacks 81
25.7.2 Managed Remotely 81
25.7.3 No Central Management Point 81
26.0 TYPES OF ATTACKS IN SENSOR NETWORKS 82
26.1 Passive Attack 82
26.1.1 Attacks against Privacy 82
26.2 Active Attack 83
26.2.1 Denial of Service (DoS) Attack 84
26.2.2 Routing Attacks 84
26.2.3 Physical Attacks on Devices 85
26.2.4 Node Subversion 86
26.2.5 Node Malfunction 86
26.2.6 Node Outage 86
26.2.7 Interception of the Messages of Sensor Nodes 86
26.2.8 Modification of Message 86
26.2.9 False Node 86
26.2.10 Node Replication Attacks 87
27.0 SECURITY MECHANISMS TO COMBAT ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ATTACKS 88
27.1 Low-Level Mechanism 88
27.1.1 Secrecy and Authentication 88
27.1.2 Privacy 89
27.1.3 Secure Routing 89
27.1.4 Robustness to Communication Denial of Service 89
27.1.5 Resilience to Node Capture 89
27.1.6 Key Establishment and Trust Setup 90
27.2 High-Level Mechanism 90
27.2.1 Intrusion Detection 90
27.2.2 Secure Data Aggregation 90
27.2.3 Secure Group Management 90
28.0 SENSOR NETWORK STANDARDIZATION 92
29.0 CONCLUDINS 93

List of Tables

 
Figure 1: Security Requirements for M2M 14
Figure 2: Factors leading to complexity in M2M Applications 16
Figure 3: Measures to Ensure Security for M2M Applications 19
Figure 4: Organizations and Collaborations for Standards for Safety 38
Figure 5: Privacy Concerns 42
Figure 6: Privacy and Security Concerns for Big Data 45
Figure 7: Industry Security Survey Participants 52
Figure 8: Geographic Reach of Companies 53
Figure 9: Topmost Concerns for Deploying M2M Solutions 54
Figure 10: Topmost M2M Security/Privacy Considerations by Enterprise 55
Figure 11: Attacks on OSI Layers 58
Figure 12: Counter Measures for Attacks in OSI Layers 74
Figure 13: Security Goals of Wireless Sensor Network 76
Figure 14: Challenges for Wireless Sensor Networks 79
Figure 15: Types of Attacks in Sensor Networks 82
Figure 16: Techniques employed to deploy Active attacks 84
Figure 17: Security Mechanisms to Combat Active and Passive Attacks 88

List of Figures

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