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Graphene Markets, Technologies and Opportunities 2014-2024

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Published Date : Aug 2014

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No. of Pages : 246

Graphene markets will grow from around $20 million in 2014 to more than $390 million in 2024 at the material level. The market will be split across many application sectors; each attracting a different type of graphene manufactured using different means. The market today remains dominated by research interest but the composition will change as other sectors such as energy storage and composites grow. The value chain will also transform as companies will move up the chain to offer intermediary products, capturing more value and cutting the time to market and uncertainty for end users.

Interest in graphene remains strong. Companies on the market multiply every year and academic investment continues to pour in. For example, the European Union has committed 1 billion Euros over a decade to research on graphene and other 2D materials, while the Korean and UK governments have each, respectively, committed at least $40 and £24 million in the past two years. At the same time, several graphene companies have floated on the public markets, fetching large valuations and therefore demonstrating the continued appetite for investment in graphene. IDTechEx counts approximately $60 million of investment in private graphene companies over the years.

Graphene is still in search of its killer application that delivers a unique value proposition or a first mover advantage. In the absence of such applications, the commercialisation process remains a substitution game. This is not meritless as graphene can target a broad spectrum of applications including energy storage, composites, functional inks, electronics, etc. The value proposition of graphene, the competitive landscape, the technical requirements, and the likely graphene manufacturing techniques will be different for each sector, resulting in market fragmentation. Therefore, the graphene market will in fact grow to consist of multiple subsets.  

Functional inks are technologically the lowest hanging fruit for graphene suppliers. These inks offer low temperature processing, compatibility with several printing processes, and also ruggedness. They however occupy an awkward position in the conductivity ladder. They sit many orders of magnitude below metallic inks and pastes (silver and copper) but just above carbon paste. They must therefore identify sectors where metallic inks/pastes grossly overshoot the market requirements or sectors where carbon pastes just undershoot. The main target applications are RFID and smart packaging. These markets are characterised by low material consumption per unit therefore high volume adoption is needed to generate profitable operations. A potential differentiation from carbon paste can come in the form of transparency, which is fast being developed.   Energy storage is a very attractive target market for graphene. Supercapacitor is a high-growth sector. IDTechEx expects this market to register a 30% CAGR over the coming decade. Graphene may deliver value here thanks to high surface-to-volume ratio and early laboratory results, although technical hurdles that prevent utilisation of the full surface and in-plane conductivity remain. At the same time, activated carbon remains well-entrenched with prices as low as 5 $/Kg. There is however much interest and work behind the scenes and we expect the market to grow rapidly after 2019. Several products have also been launched to target the Li ion market, which is an attractive sector thanks to its sheet size. Here, benchmarking performance is more difficult owing to the multiplicity of chemistries and designs of Li ion batteries.   

The transparent conductive film market is a also large and growing market. ITO films remain the dominant solution on the market and leaders here are ramping up the production capacity. The market however is transforming thanks to new entrants and also drivers such as growing needs for ultra-low sheet resistance, mechanical robustness and lower prices. Many alternatives are emerging including silver nanowires, metal mesh, PEDOT, and carbon nanotubes. Graphene can also be a transparent conductor but its performance is at best on a part with ITO on film, and is therefore not positioned to benefit from industry trends unless major innovation happens on the production side particularly around the CVD transfer process. Other electronic markets such as transistors are out of reach for graphene due to the absence of a bandgap.   

The composite sector is also large and fragmented with many needs. Here, graphene can deliver value as an additive. Here, graphene nanoplatelets will be used. A strong point for graphene is that it can create multi-functionality. In other words, it can help increase electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, impermeability, mechanical strength, etc. A key value add will be achieving the equivalent of, or better than, what graphite or black carbon can do with much less material usage. The lower %wt will also enable a slight room for premium charging   

The report provides the following:   

  1. A comprehensive and quantitative technology assessment covering all the main manufacturing techniques, highlighting key challenges and unresolved technical hurdles, and the latest developments 
  2. Ten-year forecasts at the material level segmented by application 
  3. Detailed breakdown of company revenues and investments 
  4. Detailed sector by sector market assessment outlining the addressable market size (where relevant) and assessing graphene's existing and potential value proposition vis-a-vis competition (ITO, graphite, activated carbon, silver nanowires, black carbon, metallic inks, etc) 
  5. Competitive landscape listing all the major competitors and their production technique and key products 
  6. Strategic insights on the state of the industry and key trends/drivers
Table of Content

1.1. Ideal graphene vis-à-vis reality
1.2. Attributes of graphene manufacturing techniques
1.3. The state of the industry and best way going forward
1.4. Markets overview and forecasts
1.5. Players

2.1. What is graphene?
2.2. Why is graphene so great?




6.1. Who will be the winner in the graphene space?


8.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
8.2. Reduction methods
8.3. Assessment and market view
8.4. Companies
8.5. Pros and cons

9.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
9.2. Transfer
9.3. Latest developments
9.4. Substrate-less CVD
9.5. Assessment and market view
9.6. Companies
9.7. Pros and cons

10.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
10.2. Assessment and market view
10.3. Companies
10.4. Pros and cons

11.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
11.1.1. Plasma Approach I
11.1.2. Plasma Approach II
11.2. Assessment and market view
11.3. Companies
11.4. Pros and cons

12.1. Graphene markets- target markets, go-to-market strategy, the interplay between manufacturing technique and application, etc
12.2. Assessment for graphene target markets
12.3. Application/product development lifecycle per market segment

13.1. Which applications/market segments will benefit?
13.2. Assessment
13.3. Conclusion

14.1. Graphene- is it good for transistors?
14.1.1. Digital applications
14.1.2. Analogue/RF electronics
14.1.3. Large area electronics- a comparison with other thin film transistor technologies
14.2. Conclusions

15.1. Graphene/polymeric composites
15.2. How does graphene enhance the performance of polymers and composites?
15.3. Which applications/market segments will benefit from graphene-enabled polymers/composites?
15.4. Our assessment
15.5. Conclusions

16.1. Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
16.2. Does graphene add value or improve performance in lithium ion batteries?

17.1. Market for transparent conductive films
17.2. Emerging ITO alternatives
17.3. Suppliers of ITO alternatives
17.4. Graphene as an ITO alternative
17.5. Current uses of graphene
17.5.2. Future trends and market drives
17.6. Graphene does offer flexibility- is that a differentiator?
17.7. Conclusions

18.1. Supercapacitors- technology and markets
18.2. Existing supercapacitor electrode materials by company
18.3. Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
18.4. Assessment
18.5. Conclusions

19.1. The big picture - number of tags, classifications, price tags
19.2. What are the material options for RFID tags and how do they compare?
19.3. Does graphene deliver a value in this crowded market?
19.4. Market shares
19.5. Other graphene uses
19.5.1. Condom
19.5.2. Water purification


21.1. Anderlab Technologies, India
21.2. Angstron Materials, USA
21.3. Bluestone Global Tech, USA
21.4. Cabot, USA
21.5. Canatu, Finland
21.6. Cheaptubes, USA
21.7. CrayoNano, Norway
21.8. Durham Graphene Science, UK
21.9. Grafen Chemical Industries, Turkey
21.10. Graphenano, Spain
21.11. Graphene Frontiers, USA
21.12. Graphene Industries, UK
21.13. Graphene Laboratories, USA
21.14. Graphene Square, Korea
21.15. Graphene Technologies, USA
21.16. Graphenea, Spain
21.17. Group NanoXplore, Canada
21.18. Grupo Antolin Ingenieria, Spain
21.19. Haydale, UK
21.20. Incubation Alliance, Japan
21.21. Nanoinnova, Spain
21.22. Showa Denko, Japan
21.23. Sony, Japan
21.24. Thomas Swan, UK
21.25. University of Cambridge, UK
21.26. University of Exeter, UK
21.27. Vorbeck, USA
21.28. XG Sciences, USA
21.29. XinNano Materials, Taiwan
21.30. Xolve, USA

22.1. Abalonyx, Norway
22.2. Airbus, France
22.3. Aixtron, Germany
22.4. AMO GmbH, Germany
22.5. Asbury Carbon, USA
22.6. AZ Electronics, Luxembourg
22.7. BASF, Germany
22.8. Cambridge Graphene Centre, UK
22.9. Cambridge Graphene Platform, UK
22.10. Carben Semicon Ltd, Russia
22.11. Carbon Solutions, Inc., USA
22.12. Catalyx Nanotech Inc. (CNI), USA
22.13. CRANN, Ireland
22.14. Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), USA
22.15. Grafoid, Canada
22.16. GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain
22.17. Graphene Devices, USA
22.18. Graphene NanoChem, UK
22.19. Graphensic AB, Sweden
22.20. Harbin Mulan Foreign Economic and Trade Company, China
22.21. HDPlas, USA
22.22. Head, Austria
22.23. HRL Laboratories, USA
22.24. IBM, USA
22.25. iTrix, Japan
22.26. Lockheed Martin, USA
22.27. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
22.28. Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany
22.29. Momentive, USA
22.30. Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, Inc., USA
22.31. Nokia, Finland
22.32. Pennsylvania State University, USA
22.33. Power Booster, China
22.34. Quantum Materials Corp, India
22.35. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), USA
22.36. Rice University, USA
22.37. Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, USA
22.38. Samsung Electronics, Korea
22.39. Samsung Techwin, Korea
22.40. SolanPV, USA
22.41. Spirit Aerosystems, USA
22.42. Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Korea
22.43. Texas Instruments, USA
22.44. Thales, France
22.45. University of California Los Angeles, (UCLA), USA
22.46. University of Manchester, UK
22.47. University of Princeton, USA
22.48. University of Southern California (USC), USA
22.49. University of Texas at Austin, USA
22.50. University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

List of Table

1.1. Summary of manufacturing technique attributes including, material sets, graphene quality, target markets and players 
1.2. Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2012-2018 
1.3. Markets- assessment of value proposition and incumbent rival materials 
1.4. Graphene players 
2.1. Graphene vs. carbon nanotubes 
8.1. Different reduction techniques for oxidised graphite or graphene
8.2. Comparison of graphene properties obtained using different reduction techniques 
8.3. Companies commercialising RGO graphene 
8.4. Pros and cons of RGO graphene 
9.1. Carbon solubility of different metals 
9.2. Companies commercialising CVD graphene 
9.3. Pros and cons of graphene 
10.1. List of suitable organic solvents for exfoliating graphene 
10.2. Companies commercialising liquid-phase exfoliated graphene 
10.3. Pros and cons of commercialising liquid-phase exfoliated graphene 
11.1. Companies commercialising plasma graphene 
11.2. Pros and cons of plasma graphene 
12.1. Primary target markets 
13.1. Outlining and assessing target markets for functional graphene inks 
14.1. Comparison and assessment of material options for thin film transistors 
15.1. A comprehensive table collecting and showing latest results on how adding graphene to various polymers will enhance their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties 
15.2. Potential target markets that will benefit from graphene composites 
17.1. Benchmarking different TCF and TCG technologies on the basis of sheet resistance, optical transmission, ease of customisation, haze, ease of patterning, thinness, stability, flexibility, reflection and low cost. The technology com 
17.2. SWOT analysis of graphene as an ITO replacement 
18.1. Examples of supercapacitor and supercabattery applications envisaged by suppliers 
18.2. Electrode material system used by each supercapacitor manufacturer 
18.3. Reported values of graphene-enabled specific capacitance and power density 
18.4. Assessing the value proposition for graphene in different supercapacitor applications and identifying key target markets. The blue highlights indicate priority applications. 
19.1. Different RFID bands- frequency, range 
19.2. Comparison and assessment of different ink options for printed antennas 
20.2. Ten-year market forecast for graphene at material level across a variety of sectors. 

List of Chart

1.1. Illustrating how the many manufacturing techniques affect graphene quality, cost, scalability and accessible market 
1.2. Estimating amount of investment in graphene companies (by company) 
1.3. Estimating amount of revenue in the graphene industry by company. In million USD 
1.4. Graphene companies having moved, or planning to move, up the value chain to offer graphene intermediaries 
1.5. Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2012-2018 
2.1. Examples of graphene nanostructures
3.1. Different graphene types available on the market 
3.2. Illustrating how the many manufacturing techniques affect graphene quality, cost, scalability and accessible market
4.1. Mapping out different manufacturing techniques as a function of graphene quality, cost, accessible market and scalability 
5.1. The state of technology company development in the graphene space 
5.2. Latest news about graphene investment and graphene floatation 
5.3. Estimating amount of investment in graphene companies. Values are in millions 
5.4. Estimating amount of revenue in the graphene industry by company (US$ million) 
5.5. Mapping the link between universities and various start-ups in the graphene space. 
6.1. A basic illustration of graphene value chain from precursor to end product 
6.2. Graphene companies having moved, or planning to move, up the value chain to offer graphene intermediaries 
7.1. Graphene patents filed by year and by patent authority 
7.2. Patent filing by company or institution and by patent authority 
7.3. Number of papers with the word graphene in the title as a function of year based on Web of Science analysis 
8.1. Structural changes when going from graphite to graphite oxide and graphene 
8.2. Oxidisation reduction damages the graphene lattice 
8.3. Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for different RGO graphenes 
8.4. Market position for RGO graphene on a performance cost map. 
9.1. CVD manufacturing process flow 
9.2. Example of large-sized cylindrical copper furnace 
9.3. Flowchart for a typical transfer process of graphene off a conductive substrate 
9.4. How graphene sheets are transferred and stamped 
9.5. Improved recipe toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene 
9.6. Roll-to-roll transfer of graphene sheets on flexible substrates 
9.7. Transferring graphene onto a destination substrate using self-release layers 
9.8. Transferring CVD graphene using the bubbling method 
9.9. A roll-to-roll method of transfer graphene off a Cu substrate onto a flexible destination substrate 
9.10. Production process of graphene powders using a substrate-less CVD 
9.11. Comparing conductivity of PPG's plasma graphene and exfoliated GNP formulations 
9.12. Market position of CVD graphene on a performance-price map 
10.1. From natural graphene to inkjet ink via liquid-phase exfoliation 
10.2. Liquid-phase exfoliation 
10.3. Market position of liquid-phase exfoliated graphene on a performance-price map 
12.1. Product development timeline per application sector 
12.2. Head tennis racquet containing graphene 
13.1. Ten year market forecast for conductive inks 
13.2. Examples of printed RFID antennas and smart packaging with graphene 
13.3. The cost structure of a typical RFID antenna 
14.1. Cut-off frequency as a function of channel length for different active channels and Degradation output characteristics of graphene transistors 
16.1. Graphene supercapacitors on Ragone plots 
16.2. Graphene-enabled performance benefit in lithium ion batteries 
17.1. Ten year market forecast in million USD for TCFs and TCGs by application 
17.2. ITO on film production capacity worldwide 
17.3. Optical transmission as a function of sheet resistance for ITO-on-PET sold by main industry suppliers 
17.4. Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for best laboratory scale graphene derived using the oxidation-reduction techniques (it produces powders) 
17.5. Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for best laboratory scale graphene derived using CVD (it produces sheets) 
17.6. Sheet resistance as a function of transmission for graphene compared with ITO 
17.7. Sheet resistance as a function of thickness for different TCF technologies 
17.8. Sheet resistance as a function of bending angle for graphene, CNT and ITO films 
17.9. Flexible graphene transparent conductive sheet 17.10. Prototype of a graphene-enabled touch sensor 
17.11. Prototype of a large-sized graphene transparent conductive film 
17.12. Examples of flexible transparent conductors realised using non-graphene materials. These materials include PDOT:PSS, CNT, Silver nanoparticle, silver nanowire, etc 
18.1. Schematic of a supercapacitor structure 
18.2. Ten year market forecast for supercapacitor 
18.3. Graphene supercapacitors on Ragone plots 
18.4. Assessing the value proposition for graphene in different supercapacitor applications 
19.1. Examples of RFID antennas in 125KHz, 
33.56 MHZ, UHF and 2.45GHZ bands 
19.2. Examples of HF antennas 
19.3. The approximate cost breakdown of different components in a typical UHF RF ID tag 
19.4. RFID tags growth 
19.5. Cost projection for antennas made using different materials (material costs only) 
19.6. Example of roll-to-roll printed graphene RFID tags by Vorbeck 
19.7. Market share for each material or ink option in the RFID tag business 
19.8. Benchmarking the market readiness of various nanotechnology-based water purification methods including CNT membrane, zeolite nanocrystals, ZnO nanowires, silver nanowires, TiO2 UV, etc. 
20.1. Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2014-2024 
22.1. The amount of composite materials used in recent airbus planes 
22.2. The amount of structural weight of composites used in planes, in %, as a function of year 
22.3. Effect of different nanomaterials in resin fracture toughness 
22.4. Locations and products of Cambridge Graphene Platform 
22.5. Improvement formulation with addition of GRIDSTM 180 
22.6. Schematic of the epitaxial process used to grow graphene 
22.7. Hotmelt-Prepreg-Production 
22.8. LM graphene synthesis and processing R&D 
22.12. Silicon carbide wafer 
22.17. Comparison of carbon fibre and graphene reinforcement 
22.18. Making graphene supercapacitors 
22.19. High-performance laser scribed graphene electrodes (LSG) 
22.20. Graphene supercapacitor properties 
22.21. Flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitors

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