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Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) 2013-2023

IDTechEx
Published Date » 2013-12-01
No. Of Pages » 208
Description

Thousands of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will be deployed in the next few years for both civil and military missions. Early adoption of new technologies from smart skin to structural components and intelligent motors with integral gearing will be employed. Electric power makes possible the use of wheel power for take-off because electric motors can give maximum torque from stationary. 

It gives us near silent operation, in the air and on the ground, with virtually no noise or gaseous emissions, something valued in both military and civil applications. For long range UAVs where batteries are inadequate and hybrid powertrains are necessary, there can still be silent take-off and landing. 

Only electrics can give us new forms of UAV such as intelligently swarming robot flies, this being just one example of new missions made possible by electric power in UAVs. There is work on unmanned aircraft harvesting power from winds at altitude using kites and beaming it to earth. No, this does not break the laws of physics. Other UAVs are held aloft by lasers and one other project will result in upper atmosphere UAVs that stay aloft for five years just on sunshine. 

There is a concept of a military UAV, maybe hybrid electric, that performs its mission then dives like a gannet and hides underwater. Vertical take-off and landing UAVs are now commonplace, the best known being toys that can be programmed in a desired pattern of flight but there are also military and professional civil versions being deployed. 

For the first time, this unique report examines what will be achieved and the enabling technologies that will make this possible. The PhD level analysts at IDTechEx have been studying the subject for many years and initially they encompassed much of this analysis in a popular report on electric aircraft of all sorts. 

However, there is now so much happening in UAVs alone that this report has been prepared to focus on UAVs alone. No other report is as up-to-date and insightful about this subject.
TABLE OF CONTENT

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Radically new missions now possible
1.2. Most successful pure electric UAV
1.3. All parts subject to disruptive change
1.4. Gradual UAV electrification - plasma leading edges
1.5. Energy storage comparisons
1.6. Supercapacitors
1.7. Traction motors
1.8. Broad view is vital
1.9. Where is the leadership?
1.10. Need for more benchmarking
1.11. Market projections 2013-2024
1.12. 7th Annual CAFE Electric Aircraft Symposium: Day 1
1.12.1. VTOL, hybrids and energy harvesting come center stage
1.12.2. Carbon fiber gets easier
1.12.3. Lithium-ion batteries need care
1.12.4. Disquiet about the Boeing Dreamliner
1.12.5. Way out energy sources
1.12.6. Graphene
1.12.7. Thin film photovoltaic but not yet
1.13. 7th Annual CAFE Electric Aircraft Symposium: Day 2

2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Definitions and scope
2.2. Needs
2.3. Impediments
2.4. Benchmarking best practice with land and seagoing EVs

3. TECHNOLOGIES
3.1. Powertrains
3.1.1. Pure electric vs hybrid
3.1.2. Convergence
3.1.3. Options
3.1.4. Hybrid UAVs
3.1.5. Range extenders
3.1.6. Superconducting motor with range extender
3.2. Electric traction motors
3.2.1. Traction motors for land, water and air vehicles
3.3. Shape of motors
3.4. Location of motors
3.5. Traction motor technology preference
3.6. Blunt motor talk at EV Japan January 2012
3.7. Switched reluctance motors a disruptive traction motor technology?
3.8. Three ways that traction motors makers race to escape rare earths
3.8.1. Synchronous motors with new magnets
3.8.2. Asynchronous motors
3.8.3. More to come
3.9. Implications for electric aircraft
3.10. Batteries
3.10.1. Battery history
3.10.2. Analogy to a container of liquid
3.10.3. Construction of a battery
3.10.4. Many shapes of battery
3.10.5. Trend to laminar and conformal traction batteries
3.10.6. Aurora laminar batteries in aircraft.
3.10.7. Choices of chemistry and assembly
3.10.8. Lithium winners today and soon
3.10.9. Lithium polymer electrolyte now important
3.10.10. Winning chemistry
3.10.11. Winning lithium traction battery manufacturers
3.10.12. Making lithium batteries safe
3.10.13. Boeing Dreamliner: Implications for electric aircraft
3.11. Fuel cells
3.11.1. Slow progress with fuel cells
3.11.2. Aerospace and aviation applications
3.11.3. AeroVironment USA
3.11.4. Boeing Europe
3.11.5. ENFICA Italy and UK
3.11.6. Pipistrel Slovenia
3.11.7. University of Stuttgart Germany
3.12. Supercapacitors, supercabatteries
3.12.1. What is a capacitor?
3.12.2. Supercabattery
3.12.3. Taiyo Yuden Japan
3.12.4. Extreme Capacitor
3.13. Energy harvesting
3.13.1. Multiple forms of energy to be managed
3.13.2. Photovoltaics
3.13.3. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Switzerland
3.13.4. ETH Zurich Switzerland
3.13.5. Green Pioneer China
3.13.6. Gossamer Penguin USA
3.13.7. Néphélios France
3.13.8. Silent Falcon™ UAS Technologies
3.13.9. Soaring China
3.13.10. Solair Germany
3.13.11. Sunseeker USA
3.13.12. University of Applied Sciences Schwäbisch Gmünd Germany
3.13.13. US Air Force
3.13.14. Northrop Grumman USA
3.14. Other energy harvesting
3.15. Regenerative soaring
3.16. Biomimetic aircraft snatch and export power?
3.16.1. IFO-Energy Unlimited in Hungary
3.16.2. Copy the birds
3.16.3. How to capture the wind?
3.16.4. Valid physics
3.16.5. How to maintain altitude?
3.16.6. Storage of energy is more challenging
3.16.7. Onboard superconducting technology?
3.16.8. Flywheels and EV technologies?
3.16.9. Soaring airliners?
3.17. Power beaming
3.18. Hybrid powertrains in action
3.18.1. Multifuel and monoblock engines
3.18.2. Beyond Aviation: formerly Bye Energy USA, France
3.18.3. Flight Design Germany
3.18.4. Lotus UK
3.18.5. Microturbines - Bladon Jets, Capstone, ETV Motors, Atria
3.19. Hybrid aircraft projects
3.19.1. Delta Airlines USA
3.19.2. DLR Germany
3.19.3. EADS Germany
3.19.4. Flight Design Germany
3.19.5. GSE USA
3.19.6. Ricardo UK
3.19.7. Turtle Airships Spain
3.19.8. University of Bristol UK
3.19.9. University of Colorado USA
3.20. Rethinking the structural design

4. SMALL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES AND OTHER EXOTICA
4.1. SUAV
4.1.1. Aurora Skate UAV wins border protection award
4.1.2. AeroVironment small UAVs
4.1.3. Hirobo Japan
4.1.4. Rotomotion
4.1.5. Robot insects
4.1.6. Reconnaissance bugs and bats
4.1.7. Nano air vehicle
4.1.8. Lite Machines Corporation USA
4.1.9. NRL launch an unmanned aerial vehicle from a submerged submarine
4.1.10. University of Arizona
4.1.11. Vienna University of Technology
4.2. Large electrical UAVs
4.2.1. VESPAS Europe
4.2.2. AeroVironment Helios and Global Observer
4.2.3. AeroVironment/ NASA USA
4.2.4. Boeing and Versa USA, QinetiQ & Newcastle University UK
4.2.5. Japanese solar sail to Venus
4.2.6. QinetiQ UK
4.2.7. Solar Flight USA

5. UAV DEPLOYMENT
5.1. AeroVironment / CybAero USA, Sweden
5.2. Flight of the Century USA
5.3. Windward Performance USA

6. FIFTEEN YEAR TIMELINE AND MARKET NUMBERS
6.1. Forecast sales 2013-2023
6.2. Energy efficient aircraft - the next 15 years
6.3. Swarming, self-healing networks of UAVs
6.3.1. Swarming 3D eye-bots in Germany
6.4. UAV payload market
6.4.1. Amazon drone delivery

List of Tables

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List of Figures

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