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Conductive Ink Markets 2014-2024: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

IDTechEx
Published Date » 2014-03-27
No. Of Pages » 259
 The conductive ink and paste business is a large market that will generate $2 billion in 2014 in revenue at the ink/paste level. This market however is segmented, consisting of many emerging and mature markets. Overall, the market will experience 3.2% CAGR over the coming decade, although growth will be unevenly spread with several target markets experiencing rapid growth while others decline. This represents both opportunities as well as risk for all market participants. At the same, emerging technologies and alternatives are improving fast too, increasingly becoming price and performance competitive with mature incumbents. This too, coupled with fluctuating base metal prices, suggests that companies must develop the right technology and market strategy to benefit from this changing...
Table of Contents 

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
1.1. Overview - Market Forecasts 2014-2024 
1.2. Technologies 
1.3. Markets 
1.3.1. Photovoltaic Market 
1.3.2. Touch Screen Market 
1.3.3. Other Markets 
1.4. Players 

2. PRINTABLE CONDUCTIVE INKS- A SURVEY 
2.1. Silver Flakes 
2.1.1. Conductivity 
2.1.2. Printing Technique 
2.1.3. Cost 
2.1.4. Target Markets 
2.1.5. Summary (SWOT) 
2.1.6. Players 
2.2. Nanoparticle Silver Ink 
2.2.1. High Conductivity 
2.2.2. Reduced Sintering Temperature 
2.2.3. Enhanced Flexibility 
2.2.4. Inkjet Printability 
2.2.5. Improved Surface Smoothness 
2.2.6. Material Savings 
2.2.7. Cost 
2.2.8. Price Parity 
2.2.9. Production Methods 
2.2.10. Target Markets 
2.2.11. Summary (SWOT) 
2.2.12. Players 
2.3. Silver Nanowires 
2.3.1. Transparency 
2.3.2. Flexibility 
2.3.3. Conductivity 
2.3.4. Fabrication and Printability
2.3.5. Target Markets 
2.3.6. Summary (SWOT) 
2.4. Players 
2.5. Silver Ion Inks 
2.6. Copper Nanoparticles and Pastes 
2.6.1. Variety 
2.6.2. Annealing Methods 
2.6.3. Target Markets 
2.6.4. Summary (SWOT) 
2.6.5. Players 
2.7. Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Ink 
2.8. Silver-Coated Copper Inks and Pastes 
2.8.1. PDOT:PSS 
2.8.2. SWOT Analyses 
2.8.3. Players 
2.9. Graphene 
2.9.1. Graphene Inks 
2.9.2. SWOT Aanalyses 
2.9.3. Players 

3. CONDUCTIVE INKS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS 
3.1. The Big Picture 
3.2. Many Different Photovoltaic Technologies 
3.3. Big Numbers are Involved 
3.4. Crystalline Silicon 
3.5. Printed Conductive Tracks 
3.6. Material Set 
3.7. Market Shares for Conductive Inks 
3.8. Market Value 

4. TOUCH SCREEN 
4.1. The Big Picture 
4.2. The Market Value 

5. ITO REPLACEMENT 
5.1. Market Value 

6. CONDUCTIVE INKS IN RFID 
6.1. The Big Picture 
6.2. Material Options and Market Shares 
6.3. Market Value 7. CONDUCTIVE INKS IN VEHICLES 

7.1. The Big Picture 
7.2. Material Set and Market Share 
7.3. Market

8. CONDUCTIVE INKS IN SMART PACKAGING AND BRAND ENHANCEMENT 
8.1. The Big Picture 
8.2. Market Value 

9. SENSORS 

10. COMPANY PROFILES 
10.1. Advanced Nano Products 
10.2. AIST and NAPRA 
10.3. Amogreentech 
10.4. Applied Nanotech Inc. 
10.5. Asahi Glass Corporation 
10.6. Asahi Kasei 
10.7. Cabot 
10.8. Chang Sung Corporation 
10.9. Cima Nanotech 
10.10. Ferro 
10.11. Harima 
10.12. Hitachi Chemical 
10.13. Kishu Giken Kogyo Co.,Ltd. 
10.14. Liquid X Printed Metals, Inc. 
10.15. Indium Corporation 
10.16. NanoMas Technologies 
10.17. Noritake 
10.18. Novacentrix 
10.19. Novacentrix PulseForge 
10.20. Taiyo 
10.21. Toyobo 
10.22. Vorbeck 

11. COMPANY INTERVIEWS 
11.1. Anderlab Technologies 
11.2. Angstron Materials 
11.3. Applied Graphene Materials 
11.4. Applied Materials Baccini 
11.5. Arkema 
11.6. Bando Chemical 
11.7. Bayer Material Science AG 
11.8. Blue Nano 
11.9. Cambrios Technology 
11.10. Colloidal Ink 
11.11. Conductive Compounds 
11.12. Creative Materials 
11.13. Daicel Corporation 
11.14. DuPont Microcircuit Materials 
11.15. DZP Technologies 
11.16. Fujikura Kasei 
11.17. Genes' Ink 
11.18. Grafen Chemical Industries 
11.19. Graphenano 
11.20. Graphene Technologies 
11.21. GSI Technologies 
11.22. Henkel 
11.23. Heraeus 
11.24. Incubation Alliance 
11.25. InkTec 
11.26. Intrinsiq Materials 
11.27. KunShan Hisense Electronics 
11.28. Methode Electronics 
11.29. nanoComposix 
11.30. Nanocyl 
11.31. Nanogap 
11.32. NanoIntegris 
11.33. PChem Associates 
11.34. Poly-Ink 
11.35. Promethean Particles 
11.36. Showa Denko 
11.37. SouthWest NanoTechnologies 
11.38. Sun Chemical 
11.39. Thomas Swan 
11.40. T-Ink 
11.41. Toda Kogyo Corp 
11.42. Tokusen USA Inc 
11.43. Ulvac 
11.44. UT Dots 
11.45. Xerox Research Centre of Canada 
11.46. XG Sciences 
11.47. Xolve 
11.48. Xymox 

12. GLOSSARY APPENDIX 
12 - IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTANCY 

List of Tables

1.1. Ten year forecast market data for conductive inks and paste across different market segments (millions) 
1.2. Ten year forecast market data for conductive inks and paste across different market segments (tonnes) 
1.3. Companies developing alternatives to silver conductive inks and paste 
1.4. Categorizing 85 companies commercialising conductive inks and paste by technology and territory 
2.1. Merits of silver flake inks 
2.2. The table below lists the key players supplying various types of silver flake paste (firing and low-T types). 
2.3. Volume resistivity and annealing temperature of nanoparticle silver inks offered by various suppliers 
2.4. Company offering ink-jet printable conductive inks 
2.5. Parameters of each production method 
2.6. Main processing categories of nanoparticles 
2.7. Processing category by parameter 
2.8. Merits of silver nanoparticle inks 
2.9. Comprehensive table comparing printing method, annealing temperature, price, resistivity, and solvent of silver nanoparticle inks offered by key players 
2.10. Merits of silver nanowires 
2.11. Key companies working on silver nanowires 
2.12. Results from thermal cycle or aging test 
2.13. Merits of copper nanoparticle inks 
2.14. Companies developing copper pastes 
2.15. SWOT analysis of PEDOTPSS and similar organic transparent conducting materials 
2.16. Companies developing PEDOT and other similar organic transparent conductive materials/films 
2.17. Merits of graphene 2.18. Graphene companies that offer printable inks today 

3.1. Bankruptcies, closures, acquisitions, sales and/or restructuring 
3.2. Key characteristics of different PV technologies 
3.3. A range of different materials can be used as conductors 

6.1. Key characteristics of RFID devices 
6.2. Key attributes of various materials 

7.1. Application of conductive inks in vehicles 
7.2. Market uptake in the medium term 

8.1. Attributes of the available technologies 

10.1. Screen Printable Silver Paste 
10.2. Other Silver Pastes 
10.3. Inkjet Printable Inks 
10.4. Applied Nanotech products 
10.5. Ferro's metal products 
10.6. Outline of Noritake product list 
10.7. Silver and carbon pastes offered by Toyobo 
10.8. Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions 

List of Figures


1.1. Ten year market forecast for conductive inks and paste across different market segments 
1.2. Ten year volume forecast for conductive inks and paste across different market segments 
1.3. Ten year volume forecast for silver flake conductive paste across different market segments 
1.4. Ten year market forecast for silver flake conductive paste across different market segments 
1.5. Business landscape for silver flake conductive paste 
1.6. Ten year volume forecast for silver nano conductive inks across different market segments 
1.7. Ten year market forecast for silver nano conductive inks across different market segments 
1.8. Business landscape for silver flake conductive paste 
1.9. Historical silver price 
1.10. Ten year forecast for number of wafers in the c-Si PV industry 
1.11. Ten year forecast for installed capacity of solar cells globally 
1.12. Ten year market forecast for conductive pastes/inks in the c-Si PV industry 
1.13. Ten year volume forecast for conductive pastes/inks in the c-Si PV industry 
1.14. Ten year forecast for number of touch devices sold globally 
1.15. Ten year forecast in area for touch devices sold globally 
1.16. A typical configuration for touch screens 
1.17. Ten year forecast for conductive paste in touch screen markets 
1.18. Ten year volume forecast for conductive paste in touch screen markets 
1.19. Membrane switch applications 
1.20. Printed circuit boards 

2.1. Process flow for producing silver flake conductive paste 
2.2. General trends in silver flake inks 
2.3. Silver flake ink prices from 1975 
2.4. Target markets for silver flake pastes (both fired and low temperature). Target markets are categorised by volume and growth rate. 
2.5. Categorising silver nanoparticle companies by size and commercialization stage 
2.6. Examples of printed and sintered silver nanoparticle inks 
2.7. Melting temperature as a function of gold particle size 
2.8. Nanoparticles can fill in the gaps to reduce resistivity 
2.9. Improving surface smoothness 
2.10. Nanoparticle silver prices $ per kg. It is noted that there is a scatter in prices as companies offer inks ranging from 100 to 1.5/2 $/g by solid content. We think that 4.5-5 $/g is close to the market average today at reasonable 
2.11. Categorising target markets on the basis of growth rate and volume* 
2.12. Categorising silver nanoparticle companies by size and commercialization stage 
2.13. Examples of nanowire networks 2.14. Silver nanowires as transparent conductors 
2.15. Flexibility of silver nanowires 2.16. Conductivity depends on the concentration of silver nanowires 
2.17. Categorising target markets on the basis of growth rate and volume* 
2.18. Silver ion ink 
2.19. Comparing the surface finish between a ion-silver ink (left) and a conventional ink (right). 
2.20. Anti-reflectors used in plasma displays 
2.21. Raw copper prices as a function of year 
2.22. Copper nanoparticles 
2.23. Weight loss as a function of temperature 
2.24. Apparatus use for annealing printed Cu inks and paste using the super-steam approach 
2.25. The growth process of crystalline Cu islands (large flakes) in the presence of reactive gas and heat 
2.26. Comparing a photolithographic and printing process used to create a pattern on a printed circuit board 
2.27. Categorising target markets on the basis of growth rate and volume 
2.28. Novacentrix RFID antennas 
2.29. Silver-coated copper particles/flakes 
2.30. Chemical structure of PDOT:PSS 
2.31. Schematic picture of a dispersed gel particle 
2.32. A process flow for patterning PDOT:PSS using photolithography and CELVIOSTM etchant 
2.33. A process flow for patterning PDOT:PSS using gravure (or screen) printing and CELVIOSTM etchant 
2.34. Comparing the performance of ITO on foil (similar to ITO on PET) with PEDOT:PSS in 2002 
2.35. Optical transmission (%) as a function of wavelength for different grades of PDOT:PSS on glass 
2.36. Improvements in performance of PDOT:PSS 
2.37. Improvement in conductivity for PDOT:PSS has a function of year 
2.38. Optical transmission as a function of sheet resistance for PDOT:PSS/PET films (here referred to as Baytron) compared with common ITO-on-PET films on the market 
2.39. Optical transmission (%) of PDOT/PET and PET as a function of wavelength (screen printed PDOT) 
2.40. Relative changes in sheet resistance as a function of number of bending cycles (bending radius 8mm) for ITO/PET and PDOT:PSS/PET films 
2.41. Changes in sheet resistance as a function of radius of curvature for ITO/PET and PEDOT:PSS/PET films 
2.42. Sheet resistance as a function distance from fixed point in PDOT:PSS films 
2.43. Silver nanowires, metal mesh ad PDOT 
2.44. Change in sheet resistance as a function of exposure time to effective sunlight 
2.45. Trade-offs involved in choosing a graphene production technique 
2.46. Companies having moved or moving up the value chain to offer graphene intermediary products such as inks 
2.47. Examples of RFID and smart packing prototypes and applications by Vorbeck 
2.48. Categorising graphene companies on the basis of their manufacturing technology 

3.1. Average selling price for PV modules 
3.2. IDTechEx forecast of the a-Si and c-Si PV market between 2014 and 2024 
3.3. Number of 6 inch c-Si PV wafers installed per year 2014-2024 
3.4. Typical crystalline silicon PV structure 
3.5. Crystalline silicon 'bus bars' grid pattern 
3.6. The ink is spread over the squeegee and pushed through the screen printing mesh 
3.7. The schematic process flow for printing conductive tracks on PVs 
3.8. Predicted trend for minimum as-cut wafer thickness in mass production of solar cells and minimum cell thickness in module 
3.9. Green, yellow and red represent known, developing and unknown technologies, respectively. 
3.10. Nanoparticle market share (%) 
3.11. Market value for different silver ink and paste types used in the PV sector. The market for silver flake paste shrinks thanks to lower consumption per wafer and also loss of market share to plating and other methods. Source: IDTec 
3.12. The metric volume amount of different inks/pastes used in c-Si and a-Si technologies in tones 2014-2024. Source: IDTechEx 

4.1. A typical configuration for touch screens. Here, the edge electrodes are clearly visible. 
4.2. Ten year forecast for mobile phone and smart phone sales 
4.3. Sales of standard and touch notebooks as a function of year between 2013 and 2023* 
4.4. Tablets sales as a function of year between 2013 and 2023 
4.5. Sales of standard and touch monitors as a function of year between 2013 and 2023* 
4.6. Market share by technology type 2014-2024 
4.7. Conductive paste market share by technology in the touch sector between 2014 and 2024 
4.8. Ten-year market forecast for conductive pastes into the touch sector (bezel) segmented by application 
4.9. Ten-year market forecast for conductive pastes into the touch sector (bezel) segmented by technology 

5.1. Benchmarking different ITO alternative solutions on the basis of sheet resistance, colour, transmission, flexibility, ease of customisation, stability, cost, etc. 
5.2. Ten-year market forecast for use of silver nanowires and silver nanoparticles, at material level, as an ITO alternative 

6.1. Inductive and electric antenna 
6.2. Examples of HF antennas 
6.3. Examples of UHF antennas 
6.4. The approximate cost breakdown of different components in a typical UHF RFID tag 
6.5. IDTechEx projections of the growth in the number of RFID tags 
6.6. Material costs for making the antenna (excludes processing and substrate costs) 
6.7. Market share in the RFID antenna sector by ink/paste technology 
6.8. Demand for conductive inks and pastes in tonnes in the RFID antennamarket 
6.9. Ten year market forecast for supplying ink/paste into the RFID antenna market segmented by technology 

7.1. Application of conductive inks in vehicles 
7.2. Volume demand in tonnes as a function of year for internal and external automotive applications 
7.3. Market share between different conductive ink/paste technologies in the automotive sector 
7.4. Volume demand in tonnes as a function of year for internal and external automotive applications segmented by technology 7.5. Ten year market forecast for conductive inks/paste in the automotive sector segmented by technology 8.1. Conductive inks in smart and electronic packaging 8.2. Market share forecasts 8.3. Market value of conductive inks in the smart packaging and brand enhancement market segment. Graphene and CNTs are excluded. 9.1. Electrochemical blood glucose strips 9.2. Ten year forecasts for printed and non-printed glucose test strips 9.3. Ten year forecasts for volume demand and market value for conductive inks/pastes in glucose sensors 10.1. Properties of the low-melting-point alloy before and after melting (structure and conductivity) 10.2. Electron microscope images of the Napra-developed copper paste (left) and of commercially available resin silver paste (right) 10.3. Resistivity of silver and copper pastes (Commercially available copper pastes: A, B, and C; Napra-developed copper paste: D; and commercially available silver paste: E) 

10.4. Resistivity vs. cure temperature for glass-coated silver nanoparticles 
10.5. The annealing process and equipment used for Hitachi Chemical's inks and pastes 
10.6. Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions
10.7. The Pulse Forge principle 
10.8. Copper pastes developed by Toyobo 
10.9. Flexographic formulation of Vor-Ink from Vorbeck 
10.10. Packaging Natralock with Siren Technology

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