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Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) for Electronics & Electrics 2013-2023: Forecasts, Applications, Technologies

IDTechEx
Published Date » 2013-05-01
No. Of Pages » 285

Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and their compounds exhibit extraordinary electrical properties for organic materials, and have a huge potential in electrical and electronic applications such as photovoltaics, sensors, semiconductor devices, displays, conductors, smart textiles and energy conversion devices (e.g., fuel cells, harvesters and batteries).
 
Carbon nanotubes for electronics applications are still a strong focus for research and printable carbon nanotube inks are beginning to hit the market. CNTs are used for making transistors and are applied as conductive layers for the rapidly growing touch screen market. CNTs are considered a viable replacement for ITO transparent conductors in some applications. 

Fabricated as transparent conductive films (TCF), carbon nanotubes can potentially be used as a highly conductive, transparent and cost efficient alternative in flexible displays and touch screens, for instance. While the cost of carbon nanotubes was once prohibitive, it has been coming down in recent years as chemical companies build up manufacturing capacity reaching $10/m2 for film applications.
 
Apart from TCF applications carbon nanotubes for thin-film batteries, supercapacitors and ultraconductive copper will reach a significant share of the overall market driving the further ramp-up of production capacity and with that cost reduction.

Analysis of the topic, include the following:
  • Markets drivers
  • Technology applications
  • 10 year forecasts to 2023
  • Company interviews and profiles
For each of these market segments, the forecasts for 2013-2023 are provided by both value and market penetration:
  • Displays
  • Batteries
  • Supercapacitors
  • Sensors
  • Touch screens
  • Photovoltaics
  • Superconductive Copper
Detailed company profiles are provided. Where direct interviews with decision-makers within the companies were conducted, detailed insight is given into their state of the technology, target markets, assets and business strategy. Using our insight, an overall picture of the emerging carbon nanotube industry for electronics applications is constructed.
TABLE OF CONTENT

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1. Key applications are transistors and conductors
1.1.1. Opportunities for Carbon Nanotube material supply
1.1.2. Opportunities for Carbon Nanotube device manufacture
1.1.3. Conductive films will come first
1.1.4. Supercapacitors
1.1.5. Transistors, etc to follow
1.2. 99 Organizations profiled

2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Carbon Nanotubes

3. PROPERTIES
3.1. Properties of CNTs
3.2. Metallic/semiconducting CNT separation
3.3. CNTs as conductors
3.4. Comparison to other conductors
3.5. Comparison to other semiconductors

4. MANUFACTURE
4.1. Manufacture of CNTs
4.1.1. Arc Discharge
4.1.2. Laser Ablation Method
4.1.3. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

5. APPLICATIONS
5.1. Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
5.2. Printing Carbon Nanotubes
5.2.1. Latest progress
5.3. Conductors
5.3.1. Deposition technologies and main applications
5.3.2. Latest progress with CNT conductors
5.3.3. Challenges
5.4. Semiconductors
5.5. Transistors
5.5.1. CNT Transistors
5.5.2. Challenges
5.6. OLEDs and flexible displays
5.6.1. Latest progress
5.6.2. Surface-Mediated Cells, SMCs
5.7. Lighting
5.8. Energy storage devices
5.8.1. Batteries
5.8.2. Supercapacitors
5.9. Photovoltaics
5.9.1. Organic Photovoltaics
5.9.2. Hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics
5.9.3. Infrared solar cells
5.9.4. CNT Solar Cell
5.9.5. Photodiode
5.10. NRAM data storage device
5.11. Sensors and Smart Textiles
5.12. Thin film speakers
5.13. CNTs for Touch Screens
5.14. Ultraconductive Copper

6. COMPANY INTERVIEWS
6.1. Arkema
6.2. Bayer MaterialScience AG
6.3. Canatu
6.4. CNano Technology Ltd
6.5. Hyperion Catalysis International
6.6. Nanocomp Technologies
6.7. Nanocyl
6.8. NanoIntegris
6.9. Showa Denko K.K.
6.10. SouthWest NanoTechnologies (SweNT)
6.11. Thomas Swan
6.12. Toray Industries
6.13. Unidym
6.14. Xolve
6.15. Zyvex Technologies

7. COMPANY PROFILES
7.1. Aneeve Nanotechnologies LLC, USA
7.2. Applied Nanotech, USA
7.3. Arry International Group, Hong Kong
7.4. Brewer Science, USA
7.5. Carbon Solutions, Inc., USA
7.6. CarboLex, Inc., USA
7.7. Case Western Reserve University, USA
7.8. CheapTubes, USA
7.9. Chengdu Organic Chemicals Co. Ltd. (Timesnano), China
7.10. Cornell University, USA
7.11. CSIRO, Australia
7.12. C3Nano, Inc., USA
7.13. Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd., Japan
7.14. DuPont Microcircuit Materials (MCM), USA
7.15. Eden Energy Ltd., Australia
7.16. Eikos, USA
7.17. Frontier Carbon Corporation (FCC), Japan
7.18. Future Carbon GmbH, Germany
7.19. Hanwha Nanotech Corporation, Korea
7.20. Harbin Mulan
7.21. HDPlas
7.22. HeJi, Inc., China
7.23. Helix Material Solutions Inc., USA
7.24. Hodogaya Chemical Co., Ltd., Japan
7.25. Honda Research Institute USA Inc. (HRI-US), USA
7.26. Honjo Chemical Corporation, Japan
7.27. IBM, USA
7.28. Intelligent Materials PVT. Ltd. (Nanoshel), India
7.29. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA
7.30. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
7.31. Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany
7.32. MER Corporation, USA
7.33. Mitsui Co., Ltd, Japan
7.34. Mknano, Canada
7.35. Nano-C, USA
7.36. NanoCarbLab (NCL), Russia
7.37. Nano Carbon Technologies Co., Ltd. (NCT)
7.38. Nanocomb Technologies, Inc. (NCTI), USA
7.39. Nanocs, USA
7.40. NanoLab, Inc., USA
7.41. NanoMas Technologies, USA
7.42. Nanoshel, Korea
7.43. Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, Inc., USA
7.44. Nanothinx S.A. , Greece
7.45. Nantero, USA
7.46. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan
7.47. National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), USA
7.48. NEC Corporation, Japan
7.49. NEDO
7.50. New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), USA
7.51. NineSigma Inc., USA
7.52. Nissha Printing, Japan
7.53. Noritake Co., Japan
7.54. North Carolina State University, USA
7.55. North Dakota State University (NDSU), USA
7.56. Northeastern University, Boston, USA
7.57. Optomec, USA
7.58. PARU, Korea
7.59. PETEC (Printable Electronics Technology Centre), UK
7.60. Purdue University, USA
7.61. Pyrograf Products, Inc., USA
7.62. Quantum Materials Corp
7.63. Rice University, USA
7.64. Samsung Electronics, Korea
7.65. Sang Bo Corporation (SBK), Korea
7.66. SES Research, USA
7.67. Shenzhen Nanotechnologies Co. Ltd. (NTP)
7.68. ST Microelectronics, Switzerland
7.69. Sunchon National University, Korea
7.70. Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Korea
7.71. Sun Nanotech Co, Ltd., China
7.72. Surrey NanoSystems, UK
7.73. Tsinghua University, China
7.74. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), USA
7.75. University of California, San Diego, USA
7.76. University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), USA
7.77. University of Central Florida, USA
7.78. University of Cincinnati (UC), USA
7.79. University of Michigan, USA
7.80. University of Pittsburgh, USA
7.81. University of Southern California (USC), USA
7.82. University of Stanford, USA
7.83. University of Stuttgart, Germany
7.84. University of Surrey, UK
7.85. University of Texas at Austin, USA
7.86. University of Texas at Dallas, USA
7.87. University of Tokyo, Japan
7.88. University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
7.89. Wisepower Co., Ltd., Korea
7.90. XinNano Materials, Inc., Taiwan
7.91. XP Nano Material
7.92. Y-Carbon
7.93. Zoz GmbH, Germany

8. NETWORK PROFILES
8.1. CONTACT
8.2. Inno.CNT
8.3. National Technology Research Association (NTRA)
8.4. TRAMS - Tera-scale reliable Adaptive Memory Systems

9. FORECASTS AND COSTS
9.1. Market Opportunity and roadmap for Carbon Nanotubes
9.2. Addressable CNT markets
9.3. Forecast per application by market share, area and value
9.4. Flexible Displays
9.4.1. OLED Displays
9.4.2. Electrophoretic Displays
9.4.3. Electroluminescent Displays
9.4.4. Electrochromic Displays
9.5. Batteries
9.6. Supercapacitors
9.7. Sensors
9.8. Touchscreens
9.9. Photovoltaics
9.10. Ultraconductive Copper
9.10.1. Overview of competing technologies
9.11. Costs of SWCNTs
9.12. New focus for Printed Electronics - the importance of flexible electronics
9.13. Focus on invisible electronics
9.14. Forecast per application by market share, area and value
9.15. Shakeout in organics
9.16. Market pull

List of Tables


1.1. Semiconductors
1.2. Activities of 99 Organizations
3.1. Charge carrier mobility of carbon nanotubes compared with alternatives
3.2. Single-wall vs. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes
3.3. Typical sheet resistivity figures for conductors
3.4. Comparison of the main options for semiconductors
5.1. Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
5.2. Main applications of conductive inks and some major suppliers today
5.3. Comparison of some of the main options for the semiconductors in printed and potentially printed transistors
5.4. Comparison of the three types of capacitor when storing one kilojoule of energy.
7.1. Main Suppliers of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Related Materials
7.2. Results of pulse-heat CVD
7.3. Characteristics of the CNT-FED compared with LEDs
9.1. Market forecast by component type for 2012-2022 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
9.2. Addressable CNT markets
9.3. CNT market in flexible OLED Displays including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.4. CNT market in flexible E-Paper Displays including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.5. CNT market in flexible EL Displays including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.6. CNT market in flexible Thin-Film Batteries including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.7. CNT market in Supercapacitors including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.8. CNT market in flexible sensors including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.9. CNT market in touchscreens including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.10. CNT market flexible photovoltaics including total addressable market, potential market penetration, market share, and area
9.11. CNT market ultraconductive copper, including total market share and material use in tonnes/year
9.12. Product Overview
9.13. Costs comparison of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Related Materials

List of Figures


1.1. Targeted applications for carbon nanotubes by Eikos
2.1. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes
2.2. The chiral vector is represented by a pair of indices (n, m). T denotes the tube axis, and a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in real space
2.3. Different kinds of carbon nanotubes
3.1. Atomic Force Microscope image of carbon nanotubes before and after processing
3.2. Potential applications are flexible solar cells, displays and touch screens
3.3. Targeted applications for carbon nanotubes by Eikos
3.4. Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials, at typical thicknesses used, compared with bulk metal
4.1. Traditional CNT film processes are complex
4.2. Illustrating how the many manufacturing techniques affect CNT quality, cost, scalability and accessible market
4.3. Schematic of the CVD process
4.4. Comparison of market size by production process
5.1. Different forms of carbon nanotube products
5.2. New printable elastic conductors made of carbon nanotubes are used to connect OLEDs in a stretchable display that can be spread over a curved surface
5.3. Stretchable mesh of transistors connected by elastic conductors
5.4. Hybrid graphene-carbon nanotube G-CNT conductors
5.5. Traditional geometry for a field effect transistor
5.6. CNT transistors through specialized printing processes from NEC Corporation
5.7. Two types of OLED construction
5.8. CNT networks for flexible displays
5.9. Surface mediated cells
5.10. ANI: proof of concept CNT lamp
5.11. Internal structure of Power Paper Battery
5.12. Proposed battery design from UCLA
5.13. Energy density vs power density for storage devices
5.14. The carbon nanotube supercapacitor versus batteries and traditional capacitors
5.15. Flexible transparent carbon atom film
5.16. The process. The resulting film is photographed atop a color photo to show its transparency
5.17. Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) scientists have demonstrated an ability to precisely grow "towers" composed of carbon nanotubes atop silicon wafers. The work could be the basis for more efficient solar power for soldiers in
5.18. Flinders University prototype CNT solar cell
5.19. A three-terminal memory cell based on suspended carbon nanotubes: (a) nonconducting state '0', (b) conducting state '1', and (c) Nantero's NRAM™.
5.20. Stanford ultra-stretchy skin-like pressure sensor
5.21. The main options for organic sensors
5.22. Four scanning electron microscope images of the spinning of carbon nanotube fibres
5.23. Photographs of CNT-cotton yarn. (a) Comparison of the original and surface modified yarn. (b) 1 meter long piece as made. (c) Demonstration of LED emission with the current passing through the yarn.
5.24. Thin, almost transparent sheets of multi-wall (MWNT) nanotubes are connected to an electrical source, which rapidly heats the nanotubes causing a pressure wave in the surrounding air to produce sound.
5.25. The CNT thin film was put on a flag to make a flexible flag loudspeaker
5.26. Carbon nanotube thin film loudspeakers
5.27. Seoul National University Graphene-PVDF loudspeaker
7.1. Hormone Sensing using CNT Printed Integrated Circuits
7.2. ANI: proof of concept CNT lamp
7.3. Fully printed CNT FET-based switch
7.4. Fully printed TFT device schematic
7.5. Transparent conductive material roadmap: Gen 1 at the moment; Gen 2 is the goal for end of 2010, Gen 3 is the long term target
7.6. Layout of CNT-FE BLU fabricated through pulse
7.7. Schematic illustration of experimental setup
7.8. Illustrations of micro-patterned cathodes
7.9. SEM images of CNTs on Samples C, D and E
7.10. Field emission properties of CNT-emitters patterned on a glass substrate by pulse-heat CVD. Luminescence images from the backsides of the cathode at various applied voltages are indicated in inset.
7.11. SEM images of CNTs on the micro-patterned electrodes with interline spacing (a) 20, (b) 50, (c) 100 and (d)200 !m (top view).
7.12. CNT Ink Production Process
7.13. Target application areas of Eikos
7.14. Concept version of the photoelectrochemical cell
7.15. This filament containing about 30 million carbon nanotubes absorbs energy from the sun
7.16. Color pixel; 3mm, display area; 48mm x480mm
7.17. Color pixel; 1.8mm, display area; 57.6mm x 460.8mm
7.18. A prototype display of digital signage
7.19. Application images of public displays.
7.20. Schematic structure of CNT-FED using line rib spacer.
7.21. Phosphor-dot pattern and conductive black-matrix pattern
7.22. An application on the information desk. The color pixel pitch were 3mm(left) and 1.8mm (right).
7.23. A photograph of a displayed color character pattern in two lines. The color pixel pitch was 1.8mm.
7.24. SEM images of CNT deposited metal electrode.(a) A photograph of the CNT deposited metal frame. (b) SEM image; boundary of barrier area. (c) SEM image; surface of the CNT layer. (d) SEM image; a surface morphology of CNT.
7.25. One of prototype displays on the vending machine. The display was under field-testing in out-door. The CNT-FED and display module were under testing continuously during ca.15months in Osaka-city up to date, and they were still con
7.26. A photograph of driving system. A solar cell and the charging controller, yellow small battery and CNT-FED module.
7.27. A photograph of a displayed color character which was driven by solar cell and small battery. The color pixel pitch was 1.8mm.
7.28. High density SWCNT structures on wafer-scale flexible substrate.
7.29. SEM micrographs of assembled SWNT structures on a soft polymer surface. (a) Patterned SWNT arrays on parylene-C substrate; (b) high magnification view of a typical central area; (c) SWNT micro-arrays that are 4 μm wide with 5 μm s
7.30. A mesh of carbon nanotubes supports one-atom-thick sheets of graphene that were produced with a new fluid-processing technique.
7.31. A three-terminal single-transistor amplifier made of graphene
7.32. Printed CNT transistor
7.33. A 16 bit HF RFID inlay
7.34. The one bit commercial display tag
7.35. Fabrication steps, leading to regular arrays of single-wall nanotubes (bottom)
7.36. The colourless disk with a lattice of more than 20,000 nanotube transistors in front of the USC sign
7.37. Thin, almost transparent sheets of multi-wall (MWNT) nanotubes are connected to an electrical source
9.1. CNT Market
9.2. Carbon nanotubes market by industry
9.3. The potential annual global sales of each type by 2023 in US$ billions and percentage
9.4. Market forecast by component type for 2012-2022 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
9.5. Market forecast for carbon nanotubes in different applications between 2013-2023
9.6. Flexible battery made of nanotube ink
9.7. The percentage of printed and partly printed electronics that is flexible 2012-2022
9.8. Evolution of printed electronics structures
9.9. Market forecast for carbon nanotubes in different applications between 2013-2023

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